Delhi

City and Union territory of India

Template:Use Indian English

Delhi
National Capital Territory of Delhi
From top, left to right: Humayun's Tomb; Qutub Minar; Jama Masjid; Red Fort's Lahori gate; India Gate; Digambar Jain Mandir with Gauri Shankar temple in the background; St. James' Church; Hyderabad House; Lotus Temple, a Baháʼí House of Worship
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Interactive map of Delhi
Coordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°E / 28.61000; 77.23000Coordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°E / 28.61000; 77.23000
CountryIndia
Capital, Delhi Sultanate1214
Capital, Mughal Empire1526–1857, intermittently with Agra
British Residency1803–57
Chief Commisionership, British India1912–1947
Union Territory[1][2]1956
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Delhi
 • Lt. GovernorVinai Kumar Saxena[3]
 • Chief MinisterArvind Kejriwal (AAP)
 • Deputy Chief MinisterManish Sisodia (AAP)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (70 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency
Area
 • City, Union territory1,484 km2 (573 sq mi)
 • Water18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)
Elevation
200–250 m (650–820 ft)
Population
 (2011)[5]
 • City, Union territory16,787,941
 • Density11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)
 • Urban16,349,831 (2nd)
 • Megacity11,034,555 (2nd)
 • Metro (includes part of NCR (2018)28,514,000 (1st)
Languages
 • Official
 • Additional official
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
Literacy (2011)86.21%[9]
Sex ratio (2011)868 /1000 [9]
Websiteportal.delhi.gov.in

Delhi[a], officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. Straddling the Yamuna river, primarily its western or right bank, Delhi shares borders with the state of Uttar Pradesh in the east and with the state of Haryana in the remaining directions. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi).[4] According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[5][14] while the NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[6] Delhi's urban agglomeration, which includes the satellite cities Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area known as the National Capital Region (NCR), has an estimated population of over 28 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world (after Tokyo).[7]

The topography of the medieval fort Purana Qila on the banks of the river Yamuna matches the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; however, excavations in the area have revealed no signs of an ancient built environment. From the early 13th century until the mid-19th century, Delhi was the capital of two major empires, the Delhi sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which covered large parts of South Asia. All three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the city, the Qutub Minar, Humayun's Tomb, and the Red Fort, belong to this period. Delhi was the early centre of Sufism and Qawwali music. The names of Nizamuddin Auliya and Amir Khusrau are prominently associated with it. The Khariboli dialect of Delhi was part of a linguistic development that gave rise to the literature of the Urdu language and then of Modern Standard Hindi. Major Urdu poets from Delhi include Mir Taqi Mir and Mirza Ghalib. Delhi was a major centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In 1911, New Delhi, a southern region within Delhi, became the capital of the British Indian Empire. During the Partition of India in 1947, Delhi was transformed from a Mughal city to a Punjabi one, losing two-thirds of its Muslim residents, in part due to the pressure brought to bear by arriving Hindu and Sikh refugees from western Punjab.[15] After independence in 1947, New Delhi continued as the capital of the Dominion of India, and after 1950 of the Republic of India.

Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index.[16] Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India (after Goa).[17] Although a union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region, which is an "interstate regional planning" area created in 1985.[18][19] Delhi hosted the inaugural 1951 Asian Games, the 1982 Asian Games, the 1983 Non-Aligned Movement summit, the 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and the 2012 BRICS summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Toponym

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There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself.[20][21][22] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[22] According to Panjab Notes and Queries, the name of the city at the time of King Prithviraj was dilpat, and that dilpat and dilli are probably derived from the old Hindi word dil meaning "eminence". The former director of the Archaeological Survey of India, Alexander Cunningham, mentioned that dilli later became dihli/dehli.[23] Some suggest the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[24] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[25] Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway"—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[26][27]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[28] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

  • Abhī Dillī dūr hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है / ابھی دلی دور ہے) or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast (هنوز دهلی دور است), literally meaning "Delhi is still far away", which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.[29][30]
  • Ās-pās barse, Dillī pānī tarse (आस-पास बरसे, दिल्ली पानी तरसे \ آس پاس برسے، دلی پانی ترسے), literally meaning "It pours all around, while Delhi lies parched". An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.[30]

The form Delhi, used in Latin script and strangely with an h following an l, originated under colonial rule and is a corrupt spelling based on the Urdu name of the city (Template:Nastaliq, Dehli).[31]

History

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Ancient and Early Medieval Periods

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The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound matching ancient literary descriptions.[32]

Traditionally seven cities have been associated with the region of Delhi. The earliest, Indraprastha, is part of a literary description in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata (composed c. 400 BCE to 200 CE but describing an earlier time) which situates a city on a knoll on the banks of the river Yamuna. According to art historian Catherine B. Asher, the topographical description of the Mahabharata matches the area of Purana Qila, a 14th-century CE fort of the Delhi sultanate, but the analogy does not go much further. Whereas the Mahabharata speaks of a beautifully decorated city with surrounding fortification, the excavations have yielded "uneven findings of painted grey pottery characteristic of the eleventh century BCE; no signs of a built environment, much fewer fortifications, have been revealed."[32]

The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BCE); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BCE) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of several major cities can be found in Delhi. The first of these was in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty built Lal Kot and several temples in 1052 CE. Vigraharaj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in the mid-12th century and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

Late Medieval Period

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The Qutub Minar, Delhi

Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain. Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India after Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. When Ghori died without an heir in 1206 CE, Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[20][33] At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi,[34] was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century. Although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia[35] Razia, daughter of Iltutmish, became the Sultana of Delhi upon the former's death.

For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[36] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[37] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398,[38] who massacred 100,000 captive civilian.[39] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Early Modern Period

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Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.

In 1526, Babur a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[20] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[40] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.[41]

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.[42] In 1737, Maratha forces led by Baji Rao I sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[43][44][45] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.[46] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.[47] The city was sacked again in 1757 by the forces of Ahmad Shah Durrani, although it was not annexed by the Afghan Empire and being its vassal state under the Mughal emperor. Then the Marathas battled and won control of Delhi from the Mughals.[48] By the end of the century, Delhi had also come under control of the Bharatpur State and the Sikh Empire.

Colonial Period

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British India stamps, inauguration, New Delhi, February 1931

In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.[49] During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.[20] In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British-held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.[50] This formally transferred on 12 December 1911.[51]

The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[52] It has expanded since; the small part of it that was constructed during the British period has come to be informally known as Lutyens' Delhi.[53]

Partition and post-independence

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Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.[54][55]

During the partition of India, around five hundred thousand Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while around three hundred thousand Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan.[56][57] Ethnic Punjabis are believed to account for at least 40% of Delhi's total population and are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus.[58][59][60] Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[61]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from its predecessor, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.[1][2] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[10] The Act gave Delhi its legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.[10]

Delhi was the primary site in the nationwide anti-Sikh pogroms of 1984, which resulted in the death of around 2,800 people in the city according to government figures, though independent estimates of the number of people killed tend to be higher. The riots were set off by the assassination of Indira Gandhi—the Prime Minister of India at the time—by her Sikh bodyguards.[62]

In 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.[63] India suspected Pakistan-based Jihadist militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[64] There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in 2005 and 2008, resulting in a total of 92 deaths.[65][66] The 2020 Delhi riots, Delhi's worst communal violence in decades, was caused mainly by Hindu mobs attacking Muslims.[67][68] Of the 53 people killed, two-thirds were Muslims,[69][70][71] and the rest Hindus.[70]

Geography

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Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right

Delhi is located in Northern India, at 28°37′N 77°14′E / 28.61°N 77.23°E / 28.61; 77.23. The city is bordered on its northern, western, and southern sides by the state of Haryana and to the east by that of Uttar Pradesh (UP). Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna River was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, northeast, and northwest parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.[72] In addition to the wetlands formed by the Yamuna river, Delhi continues to retain over 500 ponds (wetlands < 5 ha), that in turn support considerable number of bird species.[73] Delhi's ponds, despite experiencing ecological deterioration due to garbage dumping and concretization, supports the largest number of bird species known to be using ponds anywhere in the world.[74] Existing policy in Delhi prevents the conversion of wetlands and, quite inadvertently, has led to the city's ponds becoming invaluable refugia for birds.[73][74]

The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,483 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).[citation needed]

Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.[75]

Climate

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Delhi features a dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is usually witnessed between 26-30 May , with an average high of 42 °C (108 °F) and low of 27 °C (81 °F).[76] The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is usually witnessed between 16-20 January, with an average low of 7 °C (45 °F) and high of 20 °C (68 °F).[76] In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.[77] The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.[78]

Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 46 °C (35.6 to 114.8 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 49.2 °C (28.0 and 120.6 °F), respectively.[79] However, 49.2 °C (120.6 °F) was recorded at Mungeshpur on 15 May 2022 whereas one of the main weathering station, that is, Airport station recorded all time high of 48.4 °C (119.1 °F) on 26 May 1998. The lowest ever temperature ever recorded is −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) at airport on 11 January 1967. The highest temperature ever recorded in Safdarjung is 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) on 29 May 1944 & lowest recorded is −0.6 °C (30.9 °F) on 16 January 1935. On 8 January 2006 Delhi recorded minimum temperature of 0.2 °C (32.4 °F), the coldest in 70 years.[80] On 30 December 2019 Delhi recorded lowest maximum temp ever at 7.7 °C (45.9 °F) at Mungeshpur. The lowest maximum ever recorded at Safdarjung & Palam are 9.4 °C (48.9 °F) on 30 December 2019 & 9.7 °C (49.5 °F) on 2 January 2013 respectively.[81] On 1 January 2021 Delhi recorded temperature of 1.1 °C (34.0 °F), the coldest in 15 years.[82] The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July in Safdarjung, Palam, Ayanagar & Delhi Ridge are 45 °C (113 °F) on 1 July 1931, 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) on 5 July 1987, 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) on 11 July 1982 & 42.5 °C (108.5 °F) on 7 July 2009 respectively.[83][84] The average annual rainfall is approximately 779 mm (30.7 in) according to 1961-2010 Long Period Average, most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. But it was revised to 774.4 mm (30.49 in) according to 1971-2020 Long Period Average.[20] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi was 29 June but it was revised to 27 June in 2020.[85] On January 2022 Palam broke all time high monthly rainfall at 110 mm (4.3 in) which is double it's previous record of 55.0 mm (2.17 in) in 1973.[86]

Air pollution

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A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".[87]

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Delhi was the most polluted[88] city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database.[89] According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year.[90][91][92] Air quality index of Delhi is generally moderate (101–200) level between January and September, and then it drastically deteriorates to Very Poor (301–400), Severe (401–500) or Hazardous (500+) levels in three months between October and December, due to various factors including stubble burning, fire crackers burning during Diwali and cold weather.[93][94][95] During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.[90][96][97][98] It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.[99]

Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women.[100][101] The dense smog and haze in Delhi during winter results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.[102] According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.[103]

India's Ministry of Earth Sciences published a research paper in October 2018 attributing almost 41% of PM2.5 air pollution in Delhi to vehicular emissions, 21.5% to dust/fire and 18% to industries.[104] The director of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) alleged that the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) is lobbying "against the report" because it is "inconvenient" to the automobile industry.[105] Environmentalists have also criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues.[91] In 2014, an environmental panel appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars, but till date no action has been taken to penalise the automobile industry.[106]

Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it.[97][98] In 2020, annual average PM2.5 in the Delhi, stood at 107.6 µg/m³, which is almost 21.5 times the World Health Organization PM2.5 Guideline (5 µg/m³: set in September 2021).[107] These pollution levels are estimated to reduce the Life Expectancy of an average person living in Delhi by almost 10.1 years.[107]

However, as of 2015, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.[108] Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution—Delhi has the third-highest quantity of trees among Indian cities[109] and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.[110] In 1996, the CSE started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on CNG and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives".[110] The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.[111]

However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.[112][113] According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.[114][115]

Civic administration

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Districts of Delhi

Currently, the NCT of Delhi is made up of one division, 11 districts, 33 subdivisions, 59 census towns, and 300 villages.[116]

 
Municipalities of Delhi

On the other way, the NCT of Delhi is divided into three municipalities. The boundaries of municipalities may be different from district boundaries.

  1. Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), which occupies an area of 1397.3 km2 and is sub-divided into 12 zones, that is, Centre, South, West, Najafgarh, Rohini, Civil Lines, Karol Bagh, SP-City, Keshavpuram, Narela, Shahdara North and Shahdara South.[117]
  2. New Delhi Municipality , which occupies an area of 42.7 km2
  3. Delhi Cantonment, which occupies an area of 42.3 km2

Between 13 January 2011 and 22 May 2022, MCD was divided into three municipal corporations:[118]

  1. South Delhi Municipal Corporation (SDMC) had jurisdiction over South and West Delhi areas, including Mahipalpur, Rajouri Garden, Badarpur, Jaitpur, Janakpuri, Hari Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Dwarka, Jungpura, Greater Kailash, R K Puram, Malviya Nagar, Kalkaji, Ambedkar Nagar and Pul pehladpur.
  2. North Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC) had jurisdiction over areas such as Badli, Rithala, Bawana, Kirari, Mangolpuri, Tri Nagar, Model Town, Sadar Bazar, Chandni Chowk, Matia Mahal, Karol Bagh, Moti Nagar
  3. East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC) had jurisdiction over areas such as Patparganj, Kondli, Laxmi Nagar, Seemapuri, Gonda, Karawal Nagar, Babarpur and Shahadra.[119]

Delhi is home to the High Court of Delhi. The High Court of Delhi is the highest in the Delhi before Supreme Court. The High Court of Delhi just like the apex court and other High Courts in India is the Court of record. Delhi is also home to various District Court according to jurisdictions. Delhi have Currently seven District Courts namely Tis Hazari Court Complex, Karkardooma Court Complex, Patiala House Court Complex, Rohini Court Complex, Dwarka Courts Complex, Saket Court Complex, and Rouse Avenue Court Apart from the District Courts Delhi also have Consumer Courts, CBI Courts, Labour Courts, Revenue Courts, Army tribunals, electricity tribunals, Railway Tribunals, and other various tribunals situated according to appropriate jurisdictions.[120][121]

For policing purposes Delhi is divided into fifteen police districts which are further subdivided into 95 local police station zones. Delhi currently has 180 police stations.[122][123]

Government and politics

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Arvind Kejriwal is the seventh and current Chief Minister of Delhi, first elected in February 2015.

As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, the council of ministers, and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat, and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[124][125] The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.[126] In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.[127] However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.[128] Delhi was then under President's rule until February 2015.[129] On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.[130] On 8 February 2020, Aam Aadmi Party surged to power in Delhi for a third term, boosted by a massive mandate of 62 seats.[131]

Economy

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The Khari Baoli market in Old Delhi is one of the oldest and busiest in the city.
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region.

Delhi is the largest commercial center in northern India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have been around $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[132] The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016–17 was estimated at Template:INRConvert, 13% higher than in 2015–16.[133][134]

As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions, respectively.[135] Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[136] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.[136] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.[136]

In 2018 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 594,000, and the private sector employed 273,000.[137] Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[138] Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries.[139] Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.[140]

Utility services

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Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD.[141] The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage.[141] Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.[142]
In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.[143] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[144] A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.[144]

The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher.[145] In Delhi power distribution is managed by TPDDL and BSES Yamuna & BSES Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[146] The state-owned BSNL and private enterprises such as Airtel, Vi, Jio, and provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G, 4G and 4G+.[citation needed]

Transport

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Indira Gandhi International Airport's immigration counter in Terminal 3[147]

Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the south-west of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,[148] making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost Template:INRConvert to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.[149] In 2010, IGIA was conferred the 4th best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, by Airports Council International. The airport was rated as the Best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015.[150][151] Hindon Domestic Airport in Ghaziabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the second airport for the Delhi-NCR Region on 8 March 2019.[152] A second international airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.[153] The Taj International Airport project in Jewar has been approved by the Uttar Pradesh government.[154]

The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.[155] The airport functioned until 2001; however, in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.[155][156]

Road

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Compressed natural gas red- and green buses have low floors; orange has standard.[b]
The cycle rickshaw and the auto rickshaw are commonly used in Delhi for travelling short distances.

Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India.[158] It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, NH 2, NH 8, NH 10 and NH 24. The Delhi–Mumbai and Delhi–Kolkata prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral start from the city. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[159]

Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand.[160] Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) to tackle increasing vehicular pollution.[161] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.[162][163] In addition, cluster scheme buses are operated by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) with the participation of private concessionaires and DTC.[164][165] In December 2017, the DTC and cluster buses carried over 4.19 million passengers per day.[166] Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Anand Vihar ISBT and Sarai Kale Khan ISBT are the main bus terminals for outstation buses plying to neighbouring states. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[167] Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[167] Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India.[168] Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was 11.2 million (11.2 million).[169] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[170] In 2017, the number of vehicles in Delhi city alone crossed the ten million mark with the transport department of Delhi Government putting the total number of registered vehicles at 10,567,712 until 25 May of the year.[171]

Railway

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A passenger train at the New Delhi railway station. Freight awaits pick up or transportation to other destinations.

Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The main railway stations are New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, Delhi Sarai Rohilla and Delhi Cantt.[167] The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida.[172] As of December 2021, the metro consists of ten operational lines with a total length of 348.12 km (216.31 mi) and 254 stations, and several other lines are under construction.[173] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional Template:INRConvert.[174] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[175] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[176] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[177]

Metro

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Delhi Metro is widely used in the NCR.

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system. The network consists of 10 colour-coded lines[178] serving 255 stations[c] with a total length of 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi).[d] The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage the use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi–ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi–ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built for US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional Template:INRConvert.[174] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[175] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[176]

Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organization is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides the construction and operation of the Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the managing director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.[181]

Demographics

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NCT of Delhi population pyramid in 2011

According to the 2011 census of India, the population of the NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235.[182] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively.[183] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth,[183] which made Delhi one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[184] Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond the NCT boundaries to incorporate the towns and cities of neighbouring states including Faridabad and Gurgaon in Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida in Uttar Pradesh, the total population of which is estimated by the United Nations to be over 28 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest urban area after Tokyo,[7] although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest.[185] The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary,[186] and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area.[187] The 2021 regional plan released by the Government of India renamed the Extended Urban Area from Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) as defined by the 2001 plan,[188] to Central National Capital Region (CNCR).[188][189] Around 49% of the population of Delhi lives in slums and unauthorized colonies without any civic amenities.[190] The majority of these slums have inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to a DUSIB report, almost 22% of the people do open defecation.[191]





 

Religions in Delhi (2011)

  Hinduism (81.68%)
  Islam (12.86%)
  Sikhism (3.40%)
  Jainism (0.99%)
  Christianity (0.87%)
  Buddhism (0.11%)
  Others (0.09%)

Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%).[192] Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baháʼísm and Judaism.[193]

Religious groups in Delhi (1891−2011)[e]
Religious
group
1891[196]: 68  1901[197]: 44  1911[194]: 20  1921[198]: 30  1931[199]: 119  1941[195]: 80  2011[192]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hinduism   108,058 56.11% 114,417 54.86% 121,735 52.28% 325,551 66.65% 400,302[f] 62.92% 567,264[f] 61.8% 13,712,100 81.68%
Islam   79,238 41.15% 88,460 42.41% 102,476 44.01% 141,758 29.02% 206,960 32.53% 304,971 33.22% 2,158,684 12.86%
Jainism   3,256 1.69% 3,266 1.57% 3,531 1.52% 4,698 0.96% 5,345 0.84% 11,287 1.23% 166,231 0.99%
Christianity   1,700 0.88% 2,164 1.04% 3,075 1.32% 13,320 2.73% 16,989 2.67% 17,475 1.9% 146,093 0.87%
Sikhism   289 0.15% 229 0.11% 1,939 0.83% 2,764 0.57% 6,437 1.01% 16,157 1.76% 570,581 3.4%
Zoroastrianism   31 0.02% 35 0.02% 74 0.03% 72 0.01% 126 0.02% 284 0.03% N/A N/A
Judaism   6 0% N/A N/A 7 0% 17 0% 11 0% 55 0.01% N/A N/A
Buddhism   0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 6 0% 76 0.01% 150 0.02% 18,449 0.11%
Others 1 0% 4 0% 0 0% 2 0% 0 0% 296 0.03% 15,803 0.09%
Total population 192,579 100% 208,575 100% 232,837 100% 488,452 100% 636,246 100% 917,939 100% 16,787,941 100%

According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%), Urdu (6.31%) and Bengali (1.50%). 4.11% of Delhites speak other languages.[200] Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as additional official languages.[200]

Culture

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Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
Pragati Maidan hosts the World Book Fair biennially.

Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1,200 heritage buildings[201] and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.[202]

In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid—India's largest mosque[203] built in 1656[204] and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi.[205] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, the Baháʼí Faith's Lotus Temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.[206] Lotus Temple is a Baháʼí House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The National Museum and National Gallery of Modern Art are some of the largest museums in the country. Other museums in Delhi include the National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum and National Philatelic Museum.

Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[207] Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi[208]—an embroidery done with gold thread[209]—and Meenakari[210]—the art of enamelling.

Festivals

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More than a quarter of the immigrants in Delhi are from Bihar and neighboring states. Chhath, a festival of rural Bihar is now popular in Delhi.[211]
On Basant Panchmi eve, qawwali singers wearing yellow headbands gather at the dargah of Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya to sing verses from Amir Khusrau.[212]

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.[213][214] Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe—fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya Temple, both situated in Mehrauli.[215]

Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[214] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.[216] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[217] is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second-largest exhibition of books in the world.[218] Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.[219] India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 1.5 million people.[220]

Cuisine

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Kitchen, Karim's, Old Delhi, a historic restaurant, estab. 1913[221]

As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[222] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.[222][223]: 40–50, 189–196 

The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.[223]: 41  A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.[224] The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food.[223]: 40–50 [225]

Education

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University of Delhi was founded in 1922. Sir Maurice Gwyer served as its first vice-chancellor.
Dormitory of Anglo Arabic Senior Secondary School, founded 1696, reorganized 1828
A Delhi government school student writing down the names of fruits and vegetables

Private schools in Delhi—which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)[226] or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 1,529,000 students were enrolled in primary schools, 822,000 in middle schools and 669,000 in secondary schools across Delhi.[227] Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[227]

Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[227] seven major universities and nine deemed universities.[227]

The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated with the Bar Council of India. The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi situated in Hauz Khas is a premier engineering college of India and ranks as one of the top institutes in South Asia.[228][229]

Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (formerly Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas University of Technology (formerly Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities.[230][231] University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.[232] As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.[233]

According to the Directorate of Education and GNCTD the following languages are taught in schools in Delhi under the three-language formula:[234]

Media

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Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts to Delhi.

As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, are based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large number of subscribers in the city.[235]

Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, the Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.[236] Other major English newspapers include The Times of India, The Hindu, The Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.

Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity[237] since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.[238] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.[239][240]

Sports

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Indian athletes marching into the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 1951 Asian Games
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium on the night of the 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony

Delhi hosted the first Asian Games in 1951 from 4 to 11 March. A total of 489 athletes representing 11 Asian National Olympic Committees participated in 57 events from eight sports and discipline. The Games was the successor of the Far Eastern Games and the revival of the Western Asiatic Games. On 13 February 1949, the Asian Games Federation was formally established in Delhi, with Delhi unanimously announced as the first host city of the Asian Games. National Stadium was the venue for all events.[241] Over 40,000 spectators watched the opening ceremony of the Games in National Stadium.[242]

Delhi hosted the ninth Asian Games for the second time in 1982 from 19 November to 4 December. This was the second time the city has hosted the Asian Games and was also the first Asian Games to be held under the aegis of the Olympic Council of Asia. A total of 3,411 athletes from 33 National Olympic Committees participated in these games, competing in 196 events in 21 sports and 23 disciplines. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which has a capacity of 60,000 people, was built purposely for the event and hosted its opening ceremony.[243]

Delhi hosted the Nineteenth Commonwealth Games in 2010, which ran from 3 to 14 October and was the largest sporting event held in India.[244][245] The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.[246] The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.[247] It is estimated that Template:INRConvert were spent to produce the ceremony.[248] Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.[249] The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.[249]

Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.[250] There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Arun Jaitley Stadium (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of Delhi cricket team and the Indian Premier League franchise Delhi Capitals.[251] The Delhi cricket team represents the city in the Indian domestic tournaments.[252] It has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli,[253] Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Shikhar Dhawan, Ishant Sharma, Manoj Prabhakar and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams of domestic circuit also play their home matches in Delhi, at the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Palam A Stadium, respectively.[254]

Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.[255] Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007[256] and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.[257] In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.[258] Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.[259]

See also

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Explanatory notes

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  1. ^ (/ˈdɛli/; Template:IPA-hi dillī; Template:IPA-pa dillī; Template:IPA-ur dêhlī, informally Template:IPA-ur dillī),[11][12][13]
  2. ^ The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.[110][157]
  3. ^ Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 24 transfer stations. If transfer stations are counted only once, the result will be 230 stations. Ashok Park Main station, where the two diverging branches of Green Line share tracks/platforms, is anyway counted as a single station. Stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are not counted. If stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are counted, the result will be 286 stations[179][178][180]
  4. ^ The total length of Delhi Metro is 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi). The operations & maintenance of Gurgaon Metro and Noida Metro is currently undertaken by DMRC, so the total length operated by DMRC is 390.14 kilometres (242.42 mi).[179][180]
  5. ^ 1891-1911: Data for the entirety of the town of Delhi, which included Delhi Municipality and Delhi Cantonment.[194]: 20 

    1921-1941: Data for the entirety of Delhi Province, which included Delhi Municipality, New Delhi Municipality, New Delhi Cantonment, Delhi Civil Lines, Shahdara, Narela, Mehrauli, Najafgargh, Delhi Cantonment Fort, and rural outlying areas.[195]: 14 

    2011: Data for the entirety of the Delhi Union Territory.
  6. ^ a b 1931-1941: Including Ad-Dharmis

References

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  1. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 1956, archiviert vom Original am 2017-05-01; abgerufen am 16. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  2. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 1956, archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-17; abgerufen am 16. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  3. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  4. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2020-11-29; abgerufen am 24. November 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  5. ^ a b c [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2011, archiviert vom Original am 2022-01-19; abgerufen am 12. Februar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  6. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-02; abgerufen am 28. Februar 2017.
  7. ^ a b c [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] United Nations, archiviert vom Original am 2021-08-31; abgerufen am 2. September 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  8. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Government of Delhi, 2. Juli 2003, archiviert vom Original am 2016-03-04; abgerufen am 17. Juli 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  9. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Planning Commission, Government of India, archiviert vom Original am 2018-01-27; abgerufen am 3. Oktober 2018.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  10. ^ a b c [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India, archiviert vom Original am 2016-08-21; abgerufen am 8. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  11. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  12. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India, archiviert vom Original am 2016-08-21; abgerufen am 23. November 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  13. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
    • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
    • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
    • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
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  15. ^
    • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
    • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  16. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, archiviert vom Original am 2018-09-23; abgerufen am 25. September 2018 (english).
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  22. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
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  24. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NCERT, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-23; abgerufen am 6. Juli 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  25. ^ Delhi City Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 236.
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  27. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  28. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  29. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  30. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  31. ^ Syed Mahdi Husain: Bahadur Shah Zafar and the War of 1857 in Dehli. Aakar Books, Delhi 2006, ISBN 81-87879-91-2, p. LV of the preface.
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  33. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". UNESCO World Heritage Centre, S. 71–72, archiviert vom Original am 2006-05-24; abgerufen am 22. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  39. ^ Genocide: a history Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. W.D. Rubinstein (2004). p. 28. ISBN 978-0-582-50601-5
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  42. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  43. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  44. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  45. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Avalanchepress.com, archiviert vom Original am 2011-01-13; abgerufen am 11. März 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  46. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  47. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  48. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] 9. März 2020, archiviert vom Original am 2021-11-09; abgerufen am 14. Dezember 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  50. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  51. ^ Chronicle of 20th Century History edited by J S Bowman ISBN 1-85422-005-5
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  53. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  54. ^ Somya Lakhani: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 17. Mai 2019, archiviert vom Original am 2021-10-27; abgerufen am 14. Oktober 2021: „'This market was set up for those who had been displaced; refugees who had migrated from the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) ...' said Sanjiv Mehra, president of Khan Market Traders' Association and owner of Allied Toy Store. It was aptly named after popular NWFP leader Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan or Dr Khan Sahib, the elder brother of Pashtun Independence activist Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan or Frontier Gandhi.“Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  55. ^ Mayank Bhardwaj: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 31. Mai 2019, archiviert vom Original am 2021-10-19; abgerufen am 14. Oktober 2021: „The Indian government named the market after Abdul Jabbar Khan, the brother of Pakistan's Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a close friend of 'Mahatma' Gandhi and known as the 'Frontier Gandhi'. Khan was honoured because of his role in ensuring safe passage for millions of Hindus fleeing sectarian violence after independence and the bloody 1947 partition of the sub-continent into India and Pakistan, said Sanjeev Mehra, president of the Khan Market Traders' Association.“Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  56. ^ "Capital gains: How 1947 gave birth to a new identity, a new ambition, a new Delhi" Archived 13 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Hindustan Times. 24 April 2018.
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  61. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  62. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  63. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  64. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  65. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Archiviert vom Original am 2005-11-05;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  67. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  68. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  69. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
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  71. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  72. ^ Madan Mohan: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". FIG XXII International Congress, April 2002, S. 5, archiviert vom Original am 2015-12-22; abgerufen am 3. Februar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  74. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  75. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". UNDP, archiviert vom Original am 2006-05-19; abgerufen am 23. August 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  80. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 8. Januar 2006, abgerufen am 8. Januar 2006 (english).
  81. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 31. Dezember 2019, archiviert vom Original am 2019-12-31; abgerufen am 31. Dezember 2019 (english).
  82. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 1. Januar 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  84. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Canty and Associates LLC, archiviert vom Original am 2011-09-07; abgerufen am 16. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  86. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  87. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  88. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  89. ^ Rahul Kumar: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Juli 2016, archiviert vom Original am 2016-09-15; abgerufen am 5. September 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  91. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Voice of America, archiviert vom Original am 2014-02-21; abgerufen am 20. Februar 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  93. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  94. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  95. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] 27. Februar 2018, archiviert vom Original am 2018-11-09; abgerufen am 8. November 2018.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  98. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  99. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  100. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  101. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] DNA, 3. Februar 2014, archiviert vom Original am 2014-03-05; abgerufen am 3. Februar 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  103. ^ January days getting colder, tied to rise in pollution Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 27 January 2014
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  105. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  106. ^ Impose 30% cess on diesel cars, panel tells Supreme Court Archived 4 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 11 February 2014
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  109. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Ndtv.com, archiviert vom Original am 2011-02-13; abgerufen am 11. März 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  111. ^ Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research Archived 1 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, India Today, 28 April 2013
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  113. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] CSE, India, archiviert vom Original am 2014-03-01; abgerufen am 2. März 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  115. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  116. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  117. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 22. Mai 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  119. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  120. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] 14. August 2021, archiviert vom Original am 2021-08-14; abgerufen am 14. August 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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  128. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  129. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  130. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  131. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
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  145. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, S. 117–129, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-14; abgerufen am 21. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  146. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Govt. of NCT of Delhi, archiviert vom Original am 2007-01-22; abgerufen am 9. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  147. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Airport-delhi.com, 2. Mai 1986, archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-16; abgerufen am 7. September 2009.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  148. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] (jsp) Airports Authority of India, S. 3, archiviert vom Original am 2016-05-27; abgerufen am 5. Mai 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  149. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 18. Februar 2007, archiviert vom Original am 2009-01-16; abgerufen am 3. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  150. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2. März 2016, archiviert vom Original am 2019-10-26; abgerufen am 5. Oktober 2019 (english).
  151. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] 12. Mai 2012, archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-12; abgerufen am 5. Oktober 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  152. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  153. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2014-01-02; abgerufen am 28. Juli 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  154. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  155. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  156. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  157. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  158. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  159. ^ I.Prasada Rao, Dr. P.K. Kanchan, Dr. P.K. Nanda: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". GISdevelopment.net, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-26; abgerufen am 14. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  160. ^ Dipak K. Dash: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 5. Februar 2017, archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-24; abgerufen am 23. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  161. ^ Armin Rosencranz, Michael Jackson: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". indlaw.com, S. 3, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-14; abgerufen am 14. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  162. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Delhi Transport Corporation, archiviert vom Original am 2007-01-10; abgerufen am 21. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  163. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NDTV, 12. Juli 2011, archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-24; abgerufen am 23. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  164. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  165. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  166. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Moneycontrol.com, 22. März 2018, archiviert vom Original am 2018-04-07; abgerufen am 7. Mai 2018.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  167. ^ a b c [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, S. 130–146, archiviert vom Original am 2007-01-16; abgerufen am 21. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  168. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  169. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Igovernment.in, archiviert vom Original am 2008-10-07; abgerufen am 3. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  170. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  171. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  172. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Delhimetrorail.com, archiviert vom Original am 2016-01-01; abgerufen am 24. Dezember 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  173. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  174. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  175. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  176. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] delhimetrorail.com, 24. Januar 2013, archiviert vom Original am 2013-08-30;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  177. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  178. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. April 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  179. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. April 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  180. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. April 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  181. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  182. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Censusindia.gov.in, archiviert vom Original am 2011-04-12; abgerufen am 2. Mai 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  183. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, S. 17–31, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-14; abgerufen am 21. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  184. ^ Can't afford to fall ill in Dwarka Archived 27 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Hindustan Times, 16 July 2009
  185. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  186. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 2011, archiviert vom Original am 2011-12-15; abgerufen am 26. Januar 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  187. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2015-06-30; abgerufen am 7. September 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  188. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Ministry of Urban Development, September 2007, archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-20; abgerufen am 19. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  189. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NCR Planning Board, S. 28, archiviert vom Original am 2017-03-20; abgerufen am 19. März 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  190. ^ Dhananjay Mahapatra: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 4. Oktober 2012, archiviert vom Original am 2016-04-14; abgerufen am 1. Januar 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  191. ^ Mayura Janwalkar: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 20. April 2015, archiviert vom Original am 2016-01-12; abgerufen am 1. Januar 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  192. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Government of India, archiviert vom Original am 2016-07-07; abgerufen am 8. Juli 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  193. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Census of India 2001, S. 1, archiviert vom Original am 2007-08-12; abgerufen am 16. Mai 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  194. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  195. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  196. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  197. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  198. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  199. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  200. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Ministry of Minority Affairs, S. 9, archiviert vom Original am 2016-07-08; abgerufen am 8. Juli 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  201. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  202. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archaeological Survey of India, archiviert vom Original am 2007-05-14; abgerufen am 27. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  203. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Terra Galleria, archiviert vom Original am 2009-03-04; abgerufen am 13. März 2009.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  204. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] India.gov, archiviert vom Original am 2015-09-04; abgerufen am 22. Januar 2010.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  205. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] UNESCO World Heritage Centre, archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-02; abgerufen am 13. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  206. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  207. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". About Palace on Wheels, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-26; abgerufen am 4. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  208. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  209. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  210. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Indian Handicrafts suppliars, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-01; abgerufen am 18. Juni 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  211. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  212. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  213. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  214. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". India Tourism.org, archiviert vom Original am 2007-03-19; abgerufen am 13. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  215. ^ Delhi: a portrait, by Khushwant Singh, Raghu Rai, Published by Delhi Tourism Development Corp., 1983. ISBN 978-0-19-561437-4. p. 15.
  216. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  217. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  218. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  219. ^ Sunil Sethi / New Delhi 9 February 2008: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2009-01-01; abgerufen am 3. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  220. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Archiviert vom Original am 2015-02-06;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  221. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  222. ^ a b Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  223. ^ a b c Chetananand Singh: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Ltd, 2010, archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-10; abgerufen am 23. Juni 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  224. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  225. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  226. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Archiviert vom Original am 2012-09-21;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  227. ^ a b c d [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, S. 173–187, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-14; abgerufen am 21. Dezember 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  228. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2020-10-11; abgerufen am 4. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  229. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2020-10-09; abgerufen am 4. Oktober 2020 (english).
  230. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2014-10-12; abgerufen am 1. Februar 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  231. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Archiviert vom Original am 2013-05-20; abgerufen am 11. Mai 2013.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  232. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Government of India, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-17; abgerufen am 17. Mai 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  233. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Outlookindia.com, archiviert vom Original am 2005-11-04; abgerufen am 3. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  234. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Ministry of Minority Affairs, S. 18, archiviert vom Original am 2017-05-25; abgerufen am 15. Februar 2018.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  235. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Rediff.com, 5. September 2006, archiviert vom Original am 2010-05-31; abgerufen am 8. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  236. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-13; abgerufen am 17. Mai 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  237. ^ Farah Naqvi: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". BBC World Service Trust, 14. November 2006, S. 26–36, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-15; abgerufen am 8. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  238. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Alan G. Davies, 15. November 2006, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-27; abgerufen am 7. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  239. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Indian government, archiviert vom Original am 2012-05-05; abgerufen am 30. Mai 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  240. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Asiawaves asiawaves.net, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-27; abgerufen am 30. Mai 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  241. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2020-06-20; abgerufen am 23. April 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  242. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  243. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2020-07-02; abgerufen am 23. April 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  244. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  245. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  246. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  247. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  248. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  249. ^ a b [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Commonwealth Games Organising Committee, archiviert vom Original am 2010-09-27; abgerufen am 1. Oktober 2010.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  250. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 28. Februar 2023 (english).
  251. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] ESPNcricinfo, 2. Oktober 2006, archiviert vom Original am 2012-04-21; abgerufen am 6. Januar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  252. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2016-04-27;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  253. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 28. Februar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  254. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  255. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". KolkataFootballs.com, archiviert vom Original am 2013-11-10;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  256. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] CLbuzz, archiviert vom Original am 2011-10-08; abgerufen am 17. Mai 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  257. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  258. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.

Further reading

edit
  • Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved 12 February 2007
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
edit
Government
General information

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