Wikipedia Zero is a project by the Wikimedia Foundation to provide Wikipedia free of charge on mobile phones, particularly in developing markets.[1][2] The program was launched in 2012,[3] and won a 2013 SXSW Interactive Award for activism.[4] The objective of the program is to increase access to free knowledge: in particular without data-usage cost.

Wikipedia Zero
The Wikipedia Zero logo
AffiliationsWikimedia Foundation
Wikipedia
Browsing Wikipedia via Ncell in Nepal.

Facebook Zero has been cited as an inspiration for Wikipedia Zero.[5]

History

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Map of participating countries, as of March 2015

Below is a selective history of launches. For a complete list of participating mobile networks and launch dates, see Wikimedia Foundation: mobile network partners.

Participating mobile networks

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See Wikimedia Foundation: mobile network partners.

Reception and impact

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Promotional video, produced by the Wikimedia Foundation and narrated by Jimmy Wales.
Promotional video about free access to Wikipedia, featuring a school-class from South Africa and their open letter to tele-cos.

The Subsecretaria de Telecomunicaciones of Chile ruled that zero-rating services like Wikipedia Zero, Facebook Zero, and Google Free Zone, that subsidize mobile data usage, violate net neutrality laws and had to end the practice by June 1, 2014.[18][19] The Electronic Frontier Foundation has said, "Whilst we appreciate the intent behind efforts such as Wikipedia Zero, ultimately zero rated services are a dangerous compromise."[20] Accessnow.org has been more critical, saying, "Wikimedia has always been a champion for open access to information, but it’s crucial to call out zero-rating programs for what they are: Myopic deals that do great damage to the future of the open internet."[21] The Wikimedia Foundation's Gayle Karen Young defended the program to the Washington Post, saying, "We have a complicated relationship to net neutrality. We believe in net neutrality in America," while adding that Wikipedia Zero required a different perspective in other countries: "Partnering with telecom companies in the near term, it blurs the net neutrality line in those areas. It fulfills our overall mission, though, which is providing free knowledge."[22]

In 2015, Newsweek reported that the Indian Institute of Planning and Management, an unaccredited Indian university, misled rural families into believing it was accredited, while a Wikipedia Administrator whitewashed critical information from the school's Wikipedia page.[23] Mahesh Peri, publisher of a magazine that ran critical investigations into the school, criticised Wikipedia Zero for exposing poor farmers to biased information on the school's page.

Hilary Heuler argues that "for many, zero-rated programs would limit online access to the 'walled gardens' offered by the web heavyweights. For millions of users, Facebook and Wikipedia would be synonymous with 'internet'."[24] In 2015, researchers evaluating how the similar program Facebook Zero shapes ICT use in the developing world found that 11% of Indonesians who said they used Facebook also said they did not use the Internet. 65% of Nigerians, 61% of Indonesians, and 58% of Indians agree with the statement that "Facebook is the Internet" compared with only 5% in the US.[25]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  2. ^ Kul Takanao Wadhwa: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Knight Foundation, 22. Februar 2013, abgerufen am 8. April 2013.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  3. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  4. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  5. ^ Conon Dillon: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 18. Dezember 2013, abgerufen am 15. Januar 2014.
  6. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Blog.wikimedia.org, 26. Mai 2012, abgerufen am 27. Juni 2013.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  7. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  8. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Dialog, abgerufen am 30. Juli 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  9. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archive.thedailystar.net, 2. Dezember 2013, abgerufen am 24. Juni 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  10. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Thefinancialexpress-bd.com, abgerufen am 24. Juni 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  11. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Hazlehurst Media SA, abgerufen am 22. Juli 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  12. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 19. Mai 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  13. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  14. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Kyivstar, abgerufen am 13. November 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  15. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  16. ^ Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration at line 2058: attempt to index a boolean value.
  17. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  18. ^ Leo Mirani: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Quartz, 30. Mai 2014, abgerufen am 2. Juli 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  19. ^ Jessica McKenzie: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2. Juni 2014, abgerufen am 2. Juli 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  20. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  21. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 8. August 2014;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  22. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  23. ^ Alistair Sloan: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 24. März 2015;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  24. ^ Hilary Heuler: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  25. ^ Leo Mirani: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 9. Februar 2015;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
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