Third planet from the Sun

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only place known in the universe where life has originated and found habitability. While Earth may not contain the largest volumes of water in the Solar System, only Earth sustains liquid surface water, extending over 70.8% of the planet with its ocean, making it an ocean world. The polar regions currently retain most of all other water with large sheets of ice covering ocean and land, dwarfing Earth's groundwater, lakes, rivers and atmospheric water. The other 29.2% of the Earth's surface is land, consisting of continents and islands, and is widely covered by vegetation. Below the planet's surface lies the crust, consisting of several slowly moving tectonic plates, which interact to produce mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Inside the Earth's crust is a liquid outer core that generates the magnetosphere, deflecting most of the destructive solar winds and cosmic radiation.

Earth 🜨 and ♁
Photograph of Earth taken by the Apollo 17 mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the lower half of the disc, whereas Antarctica is at the top.
Earth as seen from outer space, The Blue Marble, 1972
Prithvi, Gaia, Terra, Tellus, the world, the globe, Sol III, Mother Earth
AdjectivesEarthly, terrestrial, terran, tellurian
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000[n 1]
Aphelion152097597 km (94509065 mi)
Perihelion147098450 km (91402740 mi)[n 2]
149598023 km (92955902 mi)[1]
365.256363004 d[2]
(1.00001742096 aj)
29.7827 km/s[3]
(107218 km/h; 66622 mph)
−11.26064°[3] to J2000 ecliptic
Satellites1, the Moon
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)[6]
Equatorial radius
6378.137 km (3963.191 mi)[7][8]
Polar radius
6356.752 km (3949.903 mi)[9]
Flattening1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)[10]
Total: 510072000 km2
(196940000 sq mi)[12][n 4]

Land: 148940000 km2
(57510000 sq mi) – 29.2%

Water: 361132000 km2
(139434000 sq mi) – 70.8%
Volume1.08321×1012 km3 (2.59876×1011 cu mi)[3]
Mass5.972168×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[13]
Mean density
5.5134 g/cm3 (0.19918 lb/cu in)[3]
9.80665 m/s2 (g; 32.1740 ft/s2)[14]
11.186 km/s[3]
(40270 km/h; 25020 mph)
1.0 d
(24h 00m 00s)
0.99726968 d[16]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
0.4651 km/s[17]
(1674.4 km/h; 1040.4 mph)
TemperatureTemplate:Cvt (blackbody temperature)[18]
Surface temp. min mean max
Celsius −89.2 °C[19] 14.76 °C[20] 56.7 °C[21]
Fahrenheit −128.5 °F 58.568 °F 134.0 °F
Surface pressure
101.325 kPa (at sea level)
Composition by volume

Earth has a dynamic atmosphere, which sustains Earth's surface conditions and protects it from most meteoroids and UV-light at entry. It has a composition of primarily nitrogen and oxygen. Water vapor is widely present in the atmosphere, forming clouds that cover most of the planet. The water vapor acts as a greenhouse gas and, together with other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), creates the conditions for both liquid surface water and water vapor to persist via the capturing of energy from the Sun's light. This process maintains the current average surface temperature of 14.76 °C, at which water is liquid under atmospheric pressure. Differences in the amount of captured energy between geographic regions (as with the equatorial region receiving more sunlight than the polar regions) drive atmospheric and ocean currents, producing a global climate system with different climate regions, and a range of weather phenomena such as precipitation, allowing components such as nitrogen to cycle.

Earth is rounded into an ellipsoid with a circumference of about 40,000 km. It is the densest planet in the Solar System. Of the four rocky planets, it is the largest and most massive. Earth is about eight light-minutes away from the Sun and orbits it, taking a year (about 365.25 days) to complete one revolution. The Earth rotates around its own axis in slightly less than a day (in about 23 hours and 56 minutes). The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to the perpendicular to its orbital plane around the Sun, producing seasons. Earth is orbited by one permanent natural satellite, the Moon, which orbits Earth at 384,400 km (1.28 light seconds) and is roughly a quarter as wide as Earth. Through tidal locking, the Moon always faces the Earth with the same side, which causes tides, stabilizes Earth's axis, and gradually slows its rotation.

Earth, like most other bodies in the Solar System, formed 4.5 billion years ago from gas in the early Solar System. During the first billion years of Earth's history, the ocean formed and then life developed within it. Life spread globally and has been altering Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the Great Oxidation Event two billion years ago. Humans emerged 300,000 years ago, and reached a population of 8 billion on November 15, 2022. Humans depend on Earth's biosphere and natural resources for their survival, but have increasingly impacted the planet's environment. Humanity's current impact on Earth's climate and biosphere is unsustainable, threatening the livelihood of humans and many other forms of life, and causing widespread extinctions.[23]

Etymology edit

The Modern English word Earth developed, via Middle English, from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe.[24] It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their ancestral root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest attestation, the word eorðe was already being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ : the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world (including the sea), and the globe itself. As with Roman Terra/Tellūs and Greek Gaia, Earth may have been a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: late Norse mythology included Jörð ('Earth'), a giantess often given as the mother of Thor.[25]

Historically, earth has been written in lowercase. From early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By the era of Early Modern English, capitalization of nouns began to prevail, and the earth was also written the Earth, particularly when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More recently, the name is sometimes simply given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets, though earth and forms with the remain common.[24] House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name (for example, "Earth's atmosphere") but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the (for example, "the atmosphere of the earth"). It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?"[26]

Occasionally, the name Terra /ˈtɛrə/ is used in scientific writing and especially in science fiction to distinguish humanity's inhabited planet from others,[27] while in poetry Tellus /ˈtɛləs/ has been used to denote personification of the Earth.[28] Terra is also the name of the planet in some Romance languages (languages that evolved from Latin) like Italian and Portuguese, while in other Romance languages the word gave rise to names with slightly altered spellings (like the Spanish Tierra and the French Terre). The Latinate form Gæa or Gaea (English: /ˈ.ə/) of the Greek poetic name Gaia (Γαῖα; Template:IPA-el or Template:IPA-el) is rare, though the alternative spelling Gaia has become common due to the Gaia hypothesis, in which case its pronunciation is /ˈɡ.ə/ rather than the more classical English /ˈɡ.ə/.[29]

There are a number of adjectives for the planet Earth. From Earth itself comes earthly. From the Latin Terra comes terran /ˈtɛrən/,[30] terrestrial /təˈrɛstriəl/,[31] and (via French) terrene /təˈrn/,[32] and from the Latin Tellus comes tellurian /tɛˈlʊəriən/[33] and telluric.[34]

Natural history edit

Formation edit

Artist's impression of the early Solar System's protoplanetary disk, out of which Earth and other Solar System bodies formed

The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5682+0.0002
Ga (billion years) ago.[35] By 4.54±0.04 Ga the primordial Earth had formed.[36] The bodies in the Solar System formed and evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, and then the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, and dust (including primordial nuclides). According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth being estimated as likely taking anywhere from 70 to 100 million years to form.[37]

Estimates of the age of the Moon range from 4.5 Ga to significantly younger.[38] A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object with about 10% of Earth's mass, named Theia, collided with Earth.[39] It hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth.[40][41] Between approximately 4.1 and 3.8 Ga, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth.[42]

After formation edit

Pale orange dot artist's impression of the early Earth tinted orange by its methane-rich early atmosphere[43]

Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic activity and outgassing.[44] Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids, protoplanets, and comets.[45] Sufficient water to fill the oceans may have been on Earth since it formed.[46] In this model, atmospheric greenhouse gases kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity.[47] By 3.5 Ga, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind.[48]

As the molten outer layer of Earth cooled it formed the first solid crust, which is thought to have been mafic in composition. The first continental crust, which was more felsic in composition, formed by the partial melting of this mafic crust.[49] The presence of grains of the mineral zircon of Hadean age in Eoarchean sedimentary rocks suggests that at least some felsic crust existed as early as 4.4 Ga, only 140 Ma after Earth's formation.[50] There are two main models of how this initial small volume of continental crust evolved to reach its current abundance:[51] (1) a relatively steady growth up to the present day,[52] which is supported by the radiometric dating of continental crust globally and (2) an initial rapid growth in the volume of continental crust during the Archean, forming the bulk of the continental crust that now exists,[53][54] which is supported by isotopic evidence from hafnium in zircons and neodymium in sedimentary rocks. The two models and the data that support them can be reconciled by large-scale recycling of the continental crust, particularly during the early stages of Earth's history.[55]

New continental crust forms as a result of plate tectonics, a process ultimately driven by the continuous loss of heat from Earth's interior. Over the period of hundreds of millions of years, tectonic forces have caused areas of continental crust to group together to form supercontinents that have subsequently broken apart. At approximately 750 Ma, one of the earliest known supercontinents, Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia at 600–540 Ma, then finally Pangaea, which also began to break apart at 180 Ma.[56]

The most recent pattern of ice ages began about 40 Ma,[57] and then intensified during the Pleistocene about 3 Ma.[58] High- and middle-latitude regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating about every 21,000, 41,000 and 100,000 years.[59] The Last Glacial Period, colloquially called the "last ice age", covered large parts of the continents, to the middle latitudes, in ice and ended about 11,700 years ago.[60]

Origin of life and evolution edit

Artist's impression of the Archean, the eon after Earth's formation, featuring round stromatolites, which are early oxygen-producing forms of life from billions of years ago. After the Late Heavy Bombardment, Earth's crust had cooled, its water-rich barren surface is marked by continents and volcanoes, with the Moon still orbiting Earth half as close than today, appearing 2.8 times larger and producing strong tides.[61]

Chemical reactions led to the first self-replicating molecules about four billion years ago. A half billion years later, the last common ancestor of all current life arose.[62] The evolution of photosynthesis allowed the Sun's energy to be harvested directly by life forms. The resultant molecular oxygen (Template:Chem2) accumulated in the atmosphere and due to interaction with ultraviolet solar radiation, formed a protective ozone layer (Template:Chem2) in the upper atmosphere.[63] The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes.[64] True multicellular organisms formed as cells within colonies became increasingly specialized. Aided by the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, life colonized Earth's surface.[65] Among the earliest fossil evidence for life is microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone in Western Australia,[66] biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks in Western Greenland,[67] and remains of biotic material found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[68][69] The earliest direct evidence of life on Earth is contained in 3.45 billion-year-old Australian rocks showing fossils of microorganisms.[70][71]

During the Neoproterozoic, 1000 to 539 Ma, much of Earth might have been covered in ice. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms significantly increased in complexity.[72][73] Following the Cambrian explosion, 535 Ma, there have been at least five major mass extinctions and many minor ones.[74] Apart from the proposed current Holocene extinction event, the most recent was 66 Ma, when an asteroid impact triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but largely spared small animals such as insects, mammals, lizards and birds. Mammalian life has diversified over the past 66 Mys, and several million years ago an African ape species gained the ability to stand upright.[75][better source needed] This facilitated tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain, which led to the evolution of humans. The development of agriculture, and then civilization, led to humans having an influence on Earth and the nature and quantity of other life forms that continues to this day.[76]

Future edit

Conjectured illustration of the scorched Earth after the Sun has entered the red giant phase, about 5–7 billion years from now

Earth's expected long-term future is tied to that of the Sun. Over the next 1.1 billion years, solar luminosity will increase by 10%, and over the next 3.5 billion years by 40%.[77] Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic carbon cycle, reducing Template:Chem2 concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in approximately 100–900 million years.[78][79] The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible.[80] Due to the increased luminosity, Earth's mean temperature may reach 100 °C (212 °F) in 1.5 billion years, and all ocean water will evaporate and be lost to space, which may trigger a runaway greenhouse effect, within an estimated 1.6 to 3 billion years.[81] Even if the Sun were stable, a fraction of the water in the modern oceans will descend to the mantle, due to reduced steam venting from mid-ocean ridges.[81][82]

The Sun will evolve to become a red giant in about 5 billion years. Models predict that the Sun will expand to roughly 1 AU (150 million km; 93 million mi), about 250 times its present radius.[77][83] Earth's fate is less clear. As a red giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its mass, so, without tidal effects, Earth will move to an orbit 1.7 AU (250 million km; 160 million mi) from the Sun when the star reaches its maximum radius, otherwise, with tidal effects, it may enter the Sun's atmosphere and be vaporized.[77]

Geophysical characteristics edit

Size and shape edit

Topographic view of Earth relative to Earth's center (instead of to mean sea level, as in common topographic maps)

Earth has a rounded shape, through hydrostatic equilibrium,[84] with an average diameter of 12,742 kilometers (7,918 mi), making it the fifth largest planetary sized and largest terrestrial object of the Solar System.

Due to Earth's rotation it has the shape of an ellipsoid, bulging at its Equator, reaching 43 kilometers (27 mi) further out from its center of mass than at its poles.[85][86] Earth's shape furthermore has local topographic variations. Though the largest local variations, like the Mariana Trench (10,925 meters or 35,843 feet below local sea level),[87] only shortens Earth's average radius by 0.17% and Mount Everest (8,848 meters or 29,029 feet above local sea level) lengthens it by only 0.14%.[n 5][89] Since Earth's surface is farthest out from Earth's center of mass at its equatorial bulge, the summit of the volcano Chimborazo in Ecuador (6,384.4 km or 3,967.1 mi) is its farthest point out.[90][91] Parallel to the rigid land topography the Ocean exhibits a more dynamic topography.[92]

To measure the local variation of Earth's topography, geodesy employs an idealized Earth producing a shape called a geoid. Such a geoid shape is gained if the ocean is idealized, covering Earth completely and without any perturbations such as tides and winds. The result is a smooth but gravitational irregular geoid surface, providing a mean sea level (MSL) as a reference level for topographic measurements.[93]

Surface edit

Orbital imagery of surrounding Lake Kyoga, showing vegetation, clouds and bodies of water

Earth's surface is the boundary between the atmosphere, and the solid Earth and oceans. Defined in this way, Earth's shape is an idealized spheroid - a squashed sphere - with a surface area of about 510 million km2 (197 million sq mi).[12] Earth can be divided into two hemispheres: by latitude into the polar Northern and Southern hemispheres; or by longitude into the continental Eastern and Western hemispheres.

Most of Earth's surface is ocean water: 70.8% or 361 million km2 (139 million sq mi).[94] This vast pool of salty water is often called the world ocean,[95][96] and makes Earth with its dynamic hydrosphere a water world[97][98] or ocean world.[99][100] Indeed, in Earth's early history the ocean may have covered Earth completely.[101] The world ocean is commonly divided into the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean, from largest to smallest. The ocean fills the oceanic basins, and the ocean floor comprises abyssal plains, continental shelves, seamounts, submarine volcanoes,[85] oceanic trenches, submarine canyons, oceanic plateaus, and a globe-spanning mid-ocean ridge system.

At Earth's polar regions, the ocean surface is covered by seasonally variable amounts of sea ice that often connects with polar land, permafrost and ice sheets, forming polar ice caps.

Earth's land covers 29.2%, or 149 million km2 (58 million sq mi) of Earth's surface. The land surface includes many islands around the globe, but most of the land surface is taken by the four continental landmasses, which are (in descending order): Africa-Eurasia, America (landmass), Antarctica, and Australia (landmass).[102][103][104] These landmasses are further broken down and grouped into the continents. The terrain of the land surface varies greatly and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms. The elevation of the land surface varies from a low point of −418 m (−1,371 ft) at the Dead Sea, to a maximum altitude of 8,848 m (29,029 ft) at the top of Mount Everest. The mean height of land above sea level is about 797 m (2,615 ft).[105]

Land can be covered by surface water, snow, ice, artificial structures or vegetation. Most of Earth's land hosts vegetation,[106] but ice sheets (10%,[107] not including the equally large land under permafrost)[108] or cold as well as hot deserts (33%)[109] occupy also considerable amounts of it.

The pedosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's land surface and is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. Soil is crucial for land to be arable. Earth's total arable land is 10.7% of the land surface, with 1.3% being permanent cropland.[110][111] Earth has an estimated 16.7 million km2 (6.4 million sq mi) of cropland and 33.5 million km2 (12.9 million sq mi) of pastureland.[112]

The land surface and the ocean floor form the top of the Earth's crust, which together with parts of the upper mantle form Earth's lithosphere. Earth's crust may be divided into oceanic and continental crust. Beneath the ocean-floor sediments, the oceanic crust is predominantly basaltic, while the continental crust may include lower density materials such as granite, sediments and metamorphic rocks.[113] Nearly 75% of the continental surfaces are covered by sedimentary rocks, although they form about 5% of the mass of the crust.[114]

Relief of Earth's crust.

Earth's surface topography comprises both the topography of the ocean surface, and the shape of Earth's land surface. The submarine terrain of the ocean floor has an average bathymetric depth of 4 km, and is as varied as the terrain above sea level.

Earth's surface is continually being shaped by internal plate tectonic processes including earthquakes and volcanism; by weathering and erosion driven by ice, water, wind and temperature; and by biological processes including the growth and decomposition of biomass into soil.[115][116]

Tectonic plates edit

Earth's major plates, which are:[117]

Earth's mechanically rigid outer layer of Earth's crust and upper mantle, the lithosphere, is divided into tectonic plates. These plates are rigid segments that move relative to each other at one of three boundaries types: at convergent boundaries, two plates come together; at divergent boundaries, two plates are pulled apart; and at transform boundaries, two plates slide past one another laterally. Along these plate boundaries, earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur.[118] The tectonic plates ride on top of the asthenosphere, the solid but less-viscous part of the upper mantle that can flow and move along with the plates.[119]

As the tectonic plates migrate, oceanic crust is subducted under the leading edges of the plates at convergent boundaries. At the same time, the upwelling of mantle material at divergent boundaries creates mid-ocean ridges. The combination of these processes recycles the oceanic crust back into the mantle. Due to this recycling, most of the ocean floor is less than 100 Ma old. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific and is estimated to be 200 Ma old.[120][121] By comparison, the oldest dated continental crust is 4,030 Ma,[122] although zircons have been found preserved as clasts within Eoarchean sedimentary rocks that give ages up to 4,400 Ma, indicating that at least some continental crust existed at that time.[50]

The seven major plates are the Pacific, North American, Eurasian, African, Antarctic, Indo-Australian, and South American. Other notable plates include the Arabian Plate, the Caribbean Plate, the Nazca Plate off the west coast of South America and the Scotia Plate in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The Australian Plate fused with the Indian Plate between 50 and 55 Ma. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/a (3.0 in/year)[123] and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/a (2.0–2.7 in/year). At the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the South American Plate, progressing at a typical rate of 10.6 mm/a (0.42 in/year).[124]

Internal structure edit

Geologic layers of Earth[125]
Illustration of Earth's cutaway, not to scale
layer name
0–60 Lithosphere[n 7]
0–35 Crust[n 8] 2.2–2.9
35–660 Upper mantle 3.4–4.4
660–2890 Lower mantle 3.4–5.6
100–700 Asthenosphere
2890–5100 Outer core 9.9–12.2
5100–6378 Inner core 12.8–13.1

Earth's interior, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is divided into layers by their chemical or physical (rheological) properties. The outer layer is a chemically distinct silicate solid crust, which is underlain by a highly viscous solid mantle. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity.[127] The thickness of the crust varies from about 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) under the oceans to 30–50 km (19–31 mi) for the continents. The crust and the cold, rigid, top of the upper mantle are collectively known as the lithosphere, which is divided into independently moving tectonic plates.[128]

Beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, a relatively low-viscosity layer on which the lithosphere rides. Important changes in crystal structure within the mantle occur at 410 and 660 km (250 and 410 mi) below the surface, spanning a transition zone that separates the upper and lower mantle. Beneath the mantle, an extremely low viscosity liquid outer core lies above a solid inner core.[129] Earth's inner core may be rotating at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet, advancing by 0.1–0.5° per year, although both somewhat higher and much lower rates have also been proposed.[130] The radius of the inner core is about one-fifth of that of Earth. Density increases with depth, as described in the table on the right.

Among the Solar System's planetary-sized objects Earth is the object with the highest density.

Chemical composition edit

Earth's mass is approximately 5.97×1024 kg (5,970 Yg). It is composed mostly of iron (32.1% by mass), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminum (1.4%), with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. Due to gravitational separation, the core is primarily composed of the denser elements: iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of nickel (5.8%), sulfur (4.5%), and less than 1% trace elements.[131][49] The most common rock constituents of the crust are oxides. Over 99% of the crust is composed of various oxides of eleven elements, principally oxides containing silicon (the silicate minerals), aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, or sodium.[132][131]

Internal heat edit

Global map of heat flow from Earth's interior to the surface of Earth's crust, mostly along the oceanic ridges

The major heat-producing isotopes within Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232.[133] At the center, the temperature may be up to 6,000 °C (10,830 °F),[134] and the pressure could reach 360 GPa (52 million psi).[135] Because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists postulate that early in Earth's history, before isotopes with short half-lives were depleted, Earth's heat production was much higher. At approximately Ga, twice the present-day heat would have been produced, increasing the rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics, and allowing the production of uncommon igneous rocks such as komatiites that are rarely formed today.[136][137]

The mean heat loss from Earth is 87 mW m−2, for a global heat loss of 4.42×1013 W.[138] A portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by mantle plumes, a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. These plumes can produce hotspots and flood basalts.[139] More of the heat in Earth is lost through plate tectonics, by mantle upwelling associated with mid-ocean ridges. The final major mode of heat loss is through conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs under the oceans because the crust there is much thinner than that of the continents.[140]

Gravitational field edit

The gravity of Earth is the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth. Near Earth's surface, gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2). Local differences in topography, geology, and deeper tectonic structure cause local and broad regional differences in Earth's gravitational field, known as gravity anomalies.[141]

Magnetic field edit

Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere, with the solar wind flows from left to right

The main part of Earth's magnetic field is generated in the core, the site of a dynamo process that converts the kinetic energy of thermally and compositionally driven convection into electrical and magnetic field energy. The field extends outwards from the core, through the mantle, and up to Earth's surface, where it is, approximately, a dipole. The poles of the dipole are located close to Earth's geographic poles. At the equator of the magnetic field, the magnetic-field strength at the surface is 3.05×10−5 T, with a magnetic dipole moment of 7.79×1022 Am2 at epoch 2000, decreasing nearly 6% per century (although it still remains stronger than its long time average).[142] The convection movements in the core are chaotic; the magnetic poles drift and periodically change alignment. This causes secular variation of the main field and field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. The most recent reversal occurred approximately 700,000 years ago.[143][144]

The extent of Earth's magnetic field in space defines the magnetosphere. Ions and electrons of the solar wind are deflected by the magnetosphere; solar wind pressure compresses the dayside of the magnetosphere, to about 10 Earth radii, and extends the nightside magnetosphere into a long tail.[145] Because the velocity of the solar wind is greater than the speed at which waves propagate through the solar wind, a supersonic bow shock precedes the dayside magnetosphere within the solar wind.[146] Charged particles are contained within the magnetosphere; the plasmasphere is defined by low-energy particles that essentially follow magnetic field lines as Earth rotates.[147][148] The ring current is defined by medium-energy particles that drift relative to the geomagnetic field, but with paths that are still dominated by the magnetic field,[149] and the Van Allen radiation belts are formed by high-energy particles whose motion is essentially random, but contained in the magnetosphere.[150][151]

During magnetic storms and substorms, charged particles can be deflected from the outer magnetosphere and especially the magnetotail, directed along field lines into Earth's ionosphere, where atmospheric atoms can be excited and ionized, causing the aurora.[152]

Orbit and rotation edit

Rotation edit

Earth's rotation imaged by Deep Space Climate Observatory, showing axis tilt

Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun—its mean solar day—is 86,400 seconds of mean solar time (86,400.0025 SI seconds).[153] Because Earth's solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal deceleration, each day varies between 0 and 2 ms longer than the mean solar day.[154][155]

Earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars, called its stellar day by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), is 86,164.0989 seconds of mean solar time (UT1), or 23h 56m 4.0989s.[2][n 9] Earth's rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean March equinox (when the Sun is at 90° on the equator), is 86,164.0905 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4.0905s).[2] Thus the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.4 ms.[156]

Apart from meteors within the atmosphere and low-orbiting satellites, the main apparent motion of celestial bodies in Earth's sky is to the west at a rate of 15°/h = 15'/min. For bodies near the celestial equator, this is equivalent to an apparent diameter of the Sun or the Moon every two minutes; from Earth's surface, the apparent sizes of the Sun and the Moon are approximately the same.[157][158]

Orbit edit

Exaggerated illustration of Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun, marking that the orbital extreme points (apoapsis and periapsis) are not the same as the four seasonal extreme points (equinox and solstice)

Earth orbits the Sun, making Earth the third-closest planet to the Sun and part of the inner Solar System. Earth's average orbital distance is about 150 million km (93 million mi), which is the basis for the Astronomical Unit and is equal to roughly 8.3 light minutes or 380 times Earth's distance to the Moon.

Earth orbits the Sun every 365.2564 mean solar days, or one sidereal year. With an apparent movement of the Sun in Earth's sky at a rate of about 1°/day eastward, which is one apparent Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours. Due to this motion, on average it takes 24 hours—a solar day—for Earth to complete a full rotation about its axis so that the Sun returns to the meridian.

The orbital speed of Earth averages about 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h; 66,600 mph), which is fast enough to travel a distance equal to Earth's diameter, about 12,742 km (7,918 mi), in seven minutes, and the distance to the Moon, 384,000 km (239,000 mi), in about 3.5 hours.[3]

The Moon and Earth orbit a common barycenter every 27.32 days relative to the background stars. When combined with the Earth–Moon system's common orbit around the Sun, the period of the synodic month, from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days. Viewed from the celestial north pole, the motion of Earth, the Moon, and their axial rotations are all counterclockwise. Viewed from a vantage point above the Sun and Earth's north poles, Earth orbits in a counterclockwise direction about the Sun. The orbital and axial planes are not precisely aligned: Earth's axis is tilted some 23.44 degrees from the perpendicular to the Earth–Sun plane (the ecliptic), and the Earth-Moon plane is tilted up to ±5.1 degrees against the Earth–Sun plane. Without this tilt, there would be an eclipse every two weeks, alternating between lunar eclipses and solar eclipses.[3][159]

The Hill sphere, or the sphere of gravitational influence, of Earth is about 1.5 million km (930,000 mi) in radius.[160][n 10] This is the maximum distance at which Earth's gravitational influence is stronger than the more distant Sun and planets. Objects must orbit Earth within this radius, or they can become unbound by the gravitational perturbation of the Sun.[160] Earth, along with the Solar System, is situated in the Milky Way and orbits about 28,000 light-years from its center. It is about 20 light-years above the galactic plane in the Orion Arm.[161]

Axial tilt and seasons edit

Earth's axial tilt causing different angles of seasonal illumination at different orbital positions around the Sun

The axial tilt of Earth is approximately 23.439281°[2] with the axis of its orbit plane, always pointing towards the Celestial Poles. Due to Earth's axial tilt, the amount of sunlight reaching any given point on the surface varies over the course of the year. This causes the seasonal change in climate, with summer in the Northern Hemisphere occurring when the Tropic of Cancer is facing the Sun, and in the Southern Hemisphere when the Tropic of Capricorn faces the Sun. In each instance, winter occurs simultaneously in the opposite hemisphere. During the summer, the day lasts longer, and the Sun climbs higher in the sky. In winter, the climate becomes cooler and the days shorter.[162] Above the Arctic Circle and below the Antarctic Circle there is no daylight at all for part of the year, causing a polar night, and this night extends for several months at the poles themselves. These same latitudes also experience a midnight sun, where the sun remains visible all day.[163][164]

By astronomical convention, the four seasons can be determined by the solstices—the points in the orbit of maximum axial tilt toward or away from the Sun—and the equinoxes, when Earth's rotational axis is aligned with its orbital axis. In the Northern Hemisphere, winter solstice currently occurs around 21 December; summer solstice is near 21 June, spring equinox is around 20 March and autumnal equinox is about 22 or 23 September. In the Southern Hemisphere, the situation is reversed, with the summer and winter solstices exchanged and the spring and autumnal equinox dates swapped.[165]

The angle of Earth's axial tilt is relatively stable over long periods of time. Its axial tilt does undergo nutation; a slight, irregular motion with a main period of 18.6 years.[166] The orientation (rather than the angle) of Earth's axis also changes over time, precessing around in a complete circle over each 25,800-year cycle; this precession is the reason for the difference between a sidereal year and a tropical year. Both of these motions are caused by the varying attraction of the Sun and the Moon on Earth's equatorial bulge. The poles also migrate a few meters across Earth's surface. This polar motion has multiple, cyclical components, which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. In addition to an annual component to this motion, there is a 14-month cycle called the Chandler wobble. Earth's rotational velocity also varies in a phenomenon known as length-of-day variation.[167]

In modern times, Earth's perihelion occurs around 3 January, and its aphelion around 4 July. These dates change over time due to precession and other orbital factors, which follow cyclical patterns known as Milankovitch cycles. The changing Earth–Sun distance causes an increase of about 6.8% in solar energy reaching Earth at perihelion relative to aphelion.[168][n 11] Because the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun at about the same time that Earth reaches the closest approach to the Sun, the Southern Hemisphere receives slightly more energy from the Sun than does the northern over the course of a year. This effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the Southern Hemisphere.[169]

Earth–Moon system edit

Moon edit

Earth–Moon system seen from Mars

The Moon is a relatively large, terrestrial, planet-like natural satellite, with a diameter about one-quarter of the Earth's. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet, although Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto.[170][171] The natural satellites of other planets are also referred to as "moons", after Earth's.[172] The most widely accepted theory of the Moon's origin, the giant-impact hypothesis, states that it formed from the collision of a Mars-size protoplanet called Theia with the early Earth. This hypothesis explains (among other things) the Moon's relative lack of iron and volatile elements and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of Earth's crust.[40]

The gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon causes tides on Earth.[173] The same effect on the Moon has led to its tidal locking: its rotation period is the same as the time it takes to orbit Earth. As a result, it always presents the same face to the planet.[174] As the Moon orbits Earth, different parts of its face are illuminated by the Sun, leading to the lunar phases.[175] Due to their tidal interaction, the Moon recedes from Earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm/a (1.5 in/year). Over millions of years, these tiny modifications—and the lengthening of Earth's day by about 23 µs/yr—add up to significant changes.[176] During the Ediacaran period, for example, (approximately 620 Ma) there were 400±7 days in a year, with each day lasting 21.9±0.4 hours.[177]

The Moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate. Paleontological evidence and computer simulations show that Earth's axial tilt is stabilized by tidal interactions with the Moon.[178] Some theorists think that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the Sun and planets to Earth's equatorial bulge, the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable, exhibiting large changes over millions of years, as is the case for Mars, though this is disputed.[179][180]

Viewed from Earth, the Moon is just far enough away to have almost the same apparent-sized disk as the Sun. The angular size (or solid angle) of these two bodies match because, although the Sun's diameter is about 400 times as large as the Moon's, it is also 400 times more distant.[158] This allows total and annular solar eclipses to occur on Earth.[181]

Asteroids and artificial satellites edit

A computer-generated image mapping the prevalence of artificial satellites and space debris around Earth in geosynchronous and low Earth orbit

Earth's co-orbital asteroids population consists of quasi-satellites, objects with a horseshoe orbit and trojans. There are at least five quasi-satellites, including 469219 Kamoʻoalewa.[182][183] A trojan asteroid companion, 2010 TK7, is librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L4, in Earth's orbit around the Sun.[184] The tiny near-Earth asteroid 2006 RH120 makes close approaches to the Earth–Moon system roughly every twenty years. During these approaches, it can orbit Earth for brief periods of time.[185]

As of September 2021, there are 4,550 operational, human-made satellites orbiting Earth.[186] There are also inoperative satellites, including Vanguard 1, the oldest satellite currently in orbit, and over 16,000 pieces of tracked space debris.[n 12] Earth's largest artificial satellite is the International Space Station.[187]

Hydrosphere edit

A view of Earth with its global ocean and cloud cover, which dominate Earth's surface and hydrosphere. At Earth's polar regions Earth's hydrosphere forms larger areas of ice cover.

Earth's hydrosphere is the sum of Earth's water and its distribution. Most of Earth's hydrosphere consists of Earth's global ocean. Nevertheless, Earth's hydrosphere also consists of water in the atmosphere and on land, including clouds, inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters down to a depth of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons or about 1/4400 of Earth's total mass. The oceans cover an area of 361.8 million km2 (139.7 million sq mi) with a mean depth of 3,682 m (12,080 ft), resulting in an estimated volume of 1.332 billion km3 (320 million cu mi).[188] If all of Earth's crustal surface were at the same elevation as a smooth sphere, the depth of the resulting world ocean would be 2.7 to 2.8 km (1.68 to 1.74 mi).[189] About 97.5% of the water is saline; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water.[190][191] Most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers.[192] The remaining 30% is ground water, 1% surface water (covering only 2.8% of Earth's land)[193] and other small forms of fresh water deposits such as permafrost, water vapor in the atmosphere, biological binding, etc. .[194][195]

In Earth's coldest regions, snow survives over the summer and changes into ice. This accumulated snow and ice eventually forms into glaciers, bodies of ice that flow under the influence of their own gravity. Alpine glaciers form in mountainous areas, whereas vast ice sheets form over land in polar regions. The flow of glaciers erodes the surface changing it dramatically, with the formation of U-shaped valleys and other landforms.[196] Sea ice in the Arctic covers an area about as big as the United States, although it is quickly retreating as a consequence of climate change.[197]

The average salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater (3.5% salt).[198] Most of this salt was released from volcanic activity or extracted from cool igneous rocks.[199] The oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases, which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms.[200] Sea water has an important influence on the world's climate, with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir.[201] Shifts in the oceanic temperature distribution can cause significant weather shifts, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.[202]

The abundance of water, particularly liquid water, on Earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes it from other planets in the Solar System. Solar System planets with considerable atmospheres do partly host atmospheric water vapor, but they lack surface conditions for stable surface water.[203] Despite some moons showing signs of large reservoirs of extraterrestrial liquid water, with possibly even more volume than Earth's ocean, all of them are large bodies of water under a kilometers thick frozen surface layer.[204]

Atmosphere edit

A view of Earth with different layers of its atmosphere visible: the troposphere with its shadows casting clouds and a band of stratospheric blue sky at the horizon, and above this a line of green airglow of the lower thermosphere around an altitude of 100 km, at the edge of space.

The atmospheric pressure at Earth's sea level averages 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi),[205] with a scale height of about 8.5 km (5.3 mi).[3] A dry atmosphere is composed of 78.084% nitrogen, 20.946% oxygen, 0.934% argon, and trace amounts of carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules.[205] Water vapor content varies between 0.01% and 4%[205] but averages about 1%.[3] Clouds cover around two thirds of Earth's surface, more so over oceans than land.[206] The height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km (5 mi) at the poles to 17 km (11 mi) at the equator, with some variation resulting from weather and seasonal factors.[207]

Earth's biosphere has significantly altered its atmosphere. Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2.7 Gya, forming the primarily nitrogen–oxygen atmosphere of today.[63] This change enabled the proliferation of aerobic organisms and, indirectly, the formation of the ozone layer due to the subsequent [[Ozone–oxygen cycle|conversion of atmospheric Template:Chem2 into Template:Chem2]]. The ozone layer blocks ultraviolet solar radiation, permitting life on land.[208] Other atmospheric functions important to life include transporting water vapor, providing useful gases, causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface, and moderating temperature.[209] This last phenomenon is the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the surface, thereby raising the average temperature. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Without this heat-retention effect, the average surface temperature would be −18 °C (0 °F), in contrast to the current +15 °C (59 °F),[210] and life on Earth probably would not exist in its current form.[211]

Weather and climate edit

The ITCZ's band of clouds over the Eastern Pacific and the Americas as seen from space

Earth's atmosphere has no definite boundary, gradually becoming thinner and fading into outer space.[212] Three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km (6.8 mi) of the surface; this lowest layer is called the troposphere.[213] Energy from the Sun heats this layer, and the surface below, causing expansion of the air. This lower-density air then rises and is replaced by cooler, higher-density air. The result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of thermal energy.[214]

The primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°.[215] Ocean heat content and currents are also important factors in determining climate, particularly the thermohaline circulation that distributes thermal energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions.[216]

Earth receives 1361 W/m2 of solar irradiance.[217][218] The amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth's surface decreases with increasing latitude. At higher latitudes, the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles, and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. As a result, the mean annual air temperature at sea level decreases by about 0.4 °C (0.7 °F) per degree of latitude from the equator.[219] Earth's surface can be subdivided into specific latitudinal belts of approximately homogeneous climate. Ranging from the equator to the polar regions, these are the tropical (or equatorial), subtropical, temperate and polar climates.[220]

Further factors that affect a location's climates are its proximity to oceans, the oceanic and atmospheric circulation, and topology.[221] Places close to oceans typically have colder summers and warmer winters, due to the fact that oceans can store large amounts of heat. The wind transports the cold or the heat of the ocean to the land.[222] Atmospheric circulation also plays an important role: San Francisco and Washington DC are both coastal cities at about the same latitude. San Francisco's climate is significantly more moderate as the prevailing wind direction is from sea to land.[223] Finally, temperatures decrease with height causing mountainous areas to be colder than low-lying areas.[224]

Water vapor generated through surface evaporation is transported by circulatory patterns in the atmosphere. When atmospheric conditions permit an uplift of warm, humid air, this water condenses and falls to the surface as precipitation.[214] Most of the water is then transported to lower elevations by river systems and usually returned to the oceans or deposited into lakes. This water cycle is a vital mechanism for supporting life on land and is a primary factor in the erosion of surface features over geological periods. Precipitation patterns vary widely, ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. Atmospheric circulation, topographic features, and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region.[225]

The commonly used Köppen climate classification system has five broad groups (humid tropics, arid, humid middle latitudes, continental and cold polar), which are further divided into more specific subtypes.[215] The Köppen system rates regions based on observed temperature and precipitation.[226] Surface air temperature can rise to around 55 °C (131 °F) in hot deserts, such as Death Valley, and can fall as low as −89 °C (−128 °F) in Antarctica.[227][228]

Upper atmosphere edit

Earth's atmosphere as it appears from space, as bands of different colours at the horizon. From the bottom, afterglow illuminates the troposphere in orange with silhouettes of clouds, and the stratosphere in white and blue. Next the mesosphere (pink area) extends to just below the edge of space at one hundred kilometers and the pink line of airglow of the lower thermosphere (invisible), which hosts green and red aurorae over several hundred kilometers.

The upper atmosphere, the atmosphere above the troposphere,[229] is usually divided into the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.[209] Each layer has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. Beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere, where the geomagnetic fields interact with the solar wind.[230] Within the stratosphere is the ozone layer, a component that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light and thus is important for life on Earth. The Kármán line, defined as 100 km (62 mi) above Earth's surface, is a working definition for the boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.[231]

Thermal energy causes some of the molecules at the outer edge of the atmosphere to increase their velocity to the point where they can escape from Earth's gravity. This causes a slow but steady loss of the atmosphere into space. Because unfixed hydrogen has a low molecular mass, it can achieve escape velocity more readily, and it leaks into outer space at a greater rate than other gases.[232] The leakage of hydrogen into space contributes to the shifting of Earth's atmosphere and surface from an initially reducing state to its current oxidizing one. Photosynthesis provided a source of free oxygen, but the loss of reducing agents such as hydrogen is thought to have been a necessary precondition for the widespread accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere.[233] Hence the ability of hydrogen to escape from the atmosphere may have influenced the nature of life that developed on Earth.[234] In the current, oxygen-rich atmosphere most hydrogen is converted into water before it has an opportunity to escape. Instead, most of the hydrogen loss comes from the destruction of methane in the upper atmosphere.[235]

Life on Earth edit

An animation of the changing density of productive vegetation on land (low in brown; heavy in dark green) and phytoplankton at the ocean surface (low in purple; high in yellow)

Earth is the only known place that has ever been habitable for life. Earth's life developed in Earth's early bodies of water some hundred million years after Earth formed.

Earth's life has been shaping and inhabiting many particular ecosystems on Earth and has eventually expanded globally forming an overarching biosphere.[236] Therefore, life has impacted Earth, significantly altering Earth's atmosphere and surface over long periods of time, causing changes like the Great oxidation event.

Earth's life has over time greatly diversified, allowing the biosphere to have different biomes, which are inhabited by comparatively similar plants and animals.[237] The different biomes developed at distinct elevations or water depths, planetary temperature latitudes and on land also with different humidity. Earth's species diversity and biomass reaches a peak in shallow waters and with forests, particularly in equatorial, warm and humid conditions. While freezing polar regions and high altitudes, or extremely arid areas are relatively barren of plant and animal life.[238]

Earth provides liquid water—an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble and interact, and sufficient energy to sustain a metabolism.[239] Plants and other organisms take up nutrients from water, soils and the atmosphere. These nutrients are constantly recycled between different species.[240]

Extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons), occurs over most of Earth's surface and has a large impact on life in those areas. From 1980 to 2000, these events caused an average of 11,800 human deaths per year.[241] Many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, blizzards, floods, droughts, wildfires, and other calamities and disasters.[242] Human impact is felt in many areas due to pollution of the air and water, acid rain, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion and erosion.[243] Human activities release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere which cause global warming.[244] This is driving changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, a global rise in average sea levels, increased risk of drought and wildfires, and migration of species to colder areas.[245]

Human geography edit

A composite image of artificial light emissions at night on a map of Earth

Originating from earlier primates in eastern Africa 300,000 years ago humans have since been migrating and with the advent of agriculture in the 10th millennium BC increasingly settling Earth's land. In the 20th century Antarctica had been the last continent to see a first and until today limited human presence.

Human population has since the 19th century grown exponentially to seven billion in the early 2010s,[246] and is projected to peak at around ten billion in the second half of the 21st century.[247] Most of the growth is expected to take place in sub-Saharan Africa.[247]

Distribution and density of human population varies greatly around the world with the majority living in south to eastern Asia and 90% inhabiting only the Northern Hemisphere of Earth,[248] partly due to the hemispherical predominance of the world's land mass, with 68% of the world's land mass being in the Northern Hemisphere.[249] Furthermore, since the 19th century humans have increasingly converged into urban areas with the majority living in urban areas by the 21st century.[250]

Beyond Earth's surface humans have lived on a temporary basis, with only special purpose deep underground and underwater presence, and a few space stations. Human population virtually completely remains on Earth's surface, fully depending on Earth and the environment it sustains. Humans have gone and temporarily stayed beyond Earth with some hundreds of people, since the latter half of the 20th century, and only a fraction of them reaching another celestial body, the Moon.[251][252]

Earth has been subject to extensive human settlement, and humans have developed diverse societies and cultures. Most of Earth's land has been territorially claimed since the 19th century by sovereign states (countries) separated by political borders, and more than 200 such states exist today,[253] with only parts of Antarctica and few small regions remaining unclaimed.[254] Most of these states together form the United Nations, the leading worldwide intergovernmental organization,[255] which extends human governance over the ocean and Antarctica, and therefore all of Earth.

Natural resources and land use edit

Earth's land use for human agriculture

Earth has resources that have been exploited by humans.[256] Those termed non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels, are only replenished over geological timescales.[257] Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from Earth's crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, and natural gas.[258] These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production.[259] Mineral ore bodies have also been formed within the crust through a process of ore genesis, resulting from actions of magmatism, erosion, and plate tectonics.[260] These metals and other elements are extracted by mining, a process which often brings environmental and health damage.[261]

Earth's biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans, including food, wood, pharmaceuticals, oxygen, and the recycling of organic waste. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends on dissolved nutrients washed down from the land.[262] In 2019, 39 million km2 (15 million sq mi) of Earth's land surface consisted of forest and woodlands, 12 million km2 (4.6 million sq mi) was shrub and grassland, 40 million km2 (15 million sq mi) were used for animal feed production and grazing, and 11 million km2 (4.2 million sq mi) were cultivated as croplands.[263] Of the 12–14% of ice-free land that is used for croplands, 2 percentage points were irrigated in 2015.[264] Humans use building materials to construct shelters.[265]

Humans and the environment edit

Change in average surface air temperature and drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.[266]

Human activities have impacted Earth's environments. Through activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, humans have been increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, altering Earth's energy budget and climate.[244][267] It is estimated that global temperatures in the year 2020 were 1.2 °C (2.2 °F) warmer than the preindustrial baseline.[268] This increase in temperature, known as global warming, has contributed to the melting of glaciers, rising sea levels, increased risk of drought and wildfires, and migration of species to colder areas.[245]

The concept of planetary boundaries was introduced to quantify humanity's impact on Earth. Of the nine identified boundaries, five have been crossed: Biosphere integrity, climate change, chemical pollution, destruction of wild habitats and the nitrogen cycle are thought to have passed the safe threshold.[269][270] As of 2018, no country meets the basic needs of its population without transgressing planetary boundaries. It is thought possible to provide all basic physical needs globally within sustainable levels of resource use.[271]

Cultural and historical viewpoint edit

Tracy Caldwell Dyson in the Cupola module of the International Space Station observing the Earth below

Human cultures have developed many views of the planet.[272] The standard astronomical symbols of Earth are a quartered circle,  ,[273] representing the four corners of the world, and a globus cruciger,  . Earth is sometimes personified as a deity. In many cultures it is a mother goddess that is also the primary fertility deity.[274] Creation myths in many religions involve the creation of Earth by a supernatural deity or deities.[274] The Gaia hypothesis, developed in the mid-20th century, compared Earth's environments and life as a single self-regulating organism leading to broad stabilization of the conditions of habitability.[275][276][277]

Images of Earth taken from space, particularly during the Apollo program, have been credited with altering the way that people viewed the planet that they lived on, called the overview effect, emphasizing its beauty, uniqueness and apparent fragility.[278][279] In particular, this caused a realization of the scope of effects from human activity on Earth's environment. Enabled by science, particularly Earth observation,[280] humans have started to take action on environmental issues globally,[281] acknowledging the impact of humans and the interconnectedness of Earth's environments.

Scientific investigation has resulted in several culturally transformative shifts in people's view of the planet. Initial belief in a flat Earth was gradually displaced in Ancient Greece by the idea of a spherical Earth, which was attributed to both the philosophers Pythagoras and Parmenides.[282][283] Earth was generally believed to be the center of the universe until the 16th century, when scientists first concluded that it was a moving object, one of the planets of the Solar System.[284]

It was only during the 19th century that geologists realized Earth's age was at least many millions of years.[285] Lord Kelvin used thermodynamics to estimate the age of Earth to be between 20 million and 400 million years in 1864, sparking a vigorous debate on the subject; it was only when radioactivity and radioactive dating were discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that a reliable mechanism for determining Earth's age was established, proving the planet to be billions of years old.[286][287]

See also edit

Template:Columns list

Notes edit

  1. ^ All astronomical quantities vary, both secularly and periodically. The quantities given are the values at the instant J2000.0 of the secular variation, ignoring all periodic variations.
  2. ^ aphelion = a × (1 + e); perihelion = a × (1 – e), where a is the semi-major axis and e is the eccentricity. The difference between Earth's perihelion and aphelion is 5 million kilometers.—Wilkinson, John (2009). Probing the New Solar System. CSIRO Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-643-09949-4.
  3. ^ Earth's circumference is almost exactly 40,000 km because the meter was calibrated on this measurement—more specifically, 1/10-millionth of the distance between the poles and the equator.
  4. ^ Due to natural fluctuations, ambiguities surrounding ice shelves, and mapping conventions for vertical datums, exact values for land and ocean coverage are not meaningful. Based on data from the Vector Map and Global Landcover Archived 26 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine datasets, extreme values for coverage of lakes and streams are 0.6% and 1.0% of Earth's surface. The ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland are counted as land, even though much of the rock that supports them lies below sea level.
  5. ^ If Earth were shrunk to the size of a billiard ball, some areas of Earth such as large mountain ranges and oceanic trenches would feel like tiny imperfections, whereas much of the planet, including the Great Plains and the abyssal plains, would feel smoother.[88]
  6. ^ Including the Somali Plate, which is being formed out of the African Plate. See: Chorowicz, Jean (October 2005). "The East African rift system". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 43 (1–3): 379–410. Bibcode:2005JAfES..43..379C. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.07.019.
  7. ^ Locally varies between 5 and 200 km.
  8. ^ Locally varies between 5 and 70 km.
  9. ^ The ultimate source of these figures, uses the term "seconds of UT1" instead of "seconds of mean solar time".—Aoki, S.; Kinoshita, H.; Guinot, B.; Kaplan, G. H.; McCarthy, D. D.; Seidelmann, P. K. (1982). "The new definition of universal time". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 105 (2): 359–361. Bibcode:1982A&A...105..359A.
  10. ^ For Earth, the Hill radius is  , where m is the mass of Earth, a is an astronomical unit, and M is the mass of the Sun. So the radius in AU is about  .
  11. ^ Aphelion is 103.4% of the distance to perihelion. Due to the inverse square law, the radiation at perihelion is about 106.9% of the energy at aphelion.
  12. ^ As of 4 January 2018, the United States Strategic Command tracked a total of 18,835 artificial objects, mostly debris. See: Anz-Meador, Phillip; Shoots, Debi, eds. (February 2018). "Satellite Box Score" (PDF). Orbital Debris Quarterly News. 22 (1): 12. Retrieved 18 April 2018.

References edit

  1. ^ a b Simon, J.L.; et al. (February 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
  2. ^ a b c d e Staff: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, 13. März 2021, abgerufen am 8. Juni 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n David R. Williams: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 16. März 2017, abgerufen am 26. Juli 2018.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  4. ^ Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  5. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA/JPL, abgerufen am 3. Juli 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  6. ^ Various (2000). David R. Lide (ed.). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0481-1.
  7. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2013-08-26; abgerufen am 25. Februar 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  8. ^ a b World Geodetic System (WGS-84). Available online Archived 11 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine from National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
  9. ^ Cazenave, Anny (1995). "Geoid, Topography and Distribution of Landforms" (PDF). In Ahrens, Thomas J (ed.). Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. AGU Reference Shelf. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. Bibcode:1995geph.conf.....A. doi:10.1029/RF001. ISBN 978-0-87590-851-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  10. ^ International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group (2004). "General Definitions and Numerical Standards" (PDF). In McCarthy, Dennis D.; Petit, Gérard (eds.). IERS Conventions (2003) (PDF). IERS Technical Note No. 32. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-89888-884-4. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  11. ^ Sigurd Humerfelt: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 26. Oktober 2010, archiviert vom Original am 2011-04-24; abgerufen am 29. April 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  12. ^ a b Michael Pidwirny: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 2. Februar 2006, abgerufen am 26. November 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  13. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008, abgerufen am 11. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  14. ^ The international system of units (SI) (PDF) (2008 ed.). United States Department of Commerce, NIST Special Publication 330. p. 52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009.
  15. ^ Williams, James G. (1994). "Contributions to the Earth's obliquity rate, precession, and nutation". The Astronomical Journal. 108: 711. Bibcode:1994AJ....108..711W. doi:10.1086/117108. ISSN 0004-6256. S2CID 122370108.
  16. ^ Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  17. ^ Arthur N. Cox, ed. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (4th ed.). New York: AIP Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  18. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 18. Juli 2013, abgerufen am 3. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  19. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Arizona State University, abgerufen am 6. September 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  20. ^ Jones, P. D.; Harpham, C. (2013). "Estimation of the absolute surface air temperature of the Earth". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118 (8): 3213–3217. Bibcode:2013JGRD..118.3213J. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50359. ISSN 2169-8996.
  21. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Arizona State University, abgerufen am 6. September 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  22. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 19. Oktober 2020, archiviert vom Original am 2020-10-04;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  23. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 17. August 2022 (english).
  24. ^ a b "earth, n.¹". Oxford English Dictionary (3 ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 2010. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199571123.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3.
  25. ^ Simek, Rudolf (2007). Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Hall, Angela. D.S. Brewer. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-85991-513-7.
  26. ^ "earth". The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1998. ISBN 978-0-19-861263-6.
  27. ^ "Terra". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  28. ^ "Tellus". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  29. ^ "Gaia". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  30. ^ "Terran". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  31. ^ "terrestrial". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  32. ^ "terrene". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  33. ^ "tellurian". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  34. ^ Template:Cite dictionary
  35. ^ Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi (September 2010). "The age of the Solar System redefined by the oldest Pb–Pb age of a meteoritic inclusion". Nature Geoscience. 3 (9): 637–641. Bibcode:2010NatGe...3..637B. doi:10.1038/ngeo941.
  36. ^ See:
  37. ^ Righter, K.; Schonbachler, M. (7 May 2018). "Ag Isotopic Evolution of the Mantle During Accretion: New Constraints from Pd and Ag Metal–Silicate Partitioning". Differentiation: Building the Internal Architecture of Planets. 2084: 4034. Bibcode:2018LPICo2084.4034R. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  38. ^ Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Joy, Katherine H.; Mortimer, James I.; Pernet-Fisher, John F.; Russell, Sara; Snape, Joshua F.; Weiss, Benjamin P. (2019). "Constraining the Evolutionary History of the Moon and the Inner Solar System: A Case for New Returned Lunar Samples". Space Science Reviews. 215 (8): 54. Bibcode:2019SSRv..215...54T. doi:10.1007/s11214-019-0622-x. ISSN 1572-9672.
  39. ^ Reilly, Michael (22 October 2009). "Controversial Moon Origin Theory Rewrites History". Discovery News. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
  40. ^ a b Canup, R.; Asphaug, E. I. (2001). "Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth's formation". Nature. 412 (6848): 708–712. Bibcode:2001Natur.412..708C. doi:10.1038/35089010. PMID 11507633. S2CID 4413525.
  41. ^ Meier, M. M. M.; Reufer, A.; Wieler, R. (4 August 2014). "On the origin and composition of Theia: Constraints from new models of the Giant Impact". Icarus. 242: 5. arXiv:1410.3819. Bibcode:2014Icar..242..316M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.003. S2CID 119226112.
  42. ^ Claeys, Philippe; Morbidelli, Alessandro (2011). "Late Heavy Bombardment". In Gargaud, Muriel; Amils, Prof Ricardo; Quintanilla, José Cernicharo; Cleaves II, Henderson James (Jim); Irvine, William M.; Pinti, Prof Daniele L.; Viso, Michel (eds.). Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 909–912. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11274-4_869. ISBN 978-3-642-11271-3.
  43. ^ Trainer, Melissa G.; et al. (28 November 2006). "Organic haze on Titan and the early Earth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (48): 18035–18042. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608561103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1838702. PMID 17101962.
  44. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Universities Space Research Association, abgerufen am 27. Juni 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  45. ^ Morbidelli, A.; et al. (2000). "Source regions and time scales for the delivery of water to Earth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 35 (6): 1309–1320. Bibcode:2000M&PS...35.1309M. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2000.tb01518.x.
  46. ^ Piani, Laurette; et al. (2020). "Earth's water may have been inherited from material similar to enstatite chondrite meteorites". Science. 369 (6507): 1110–1113. Bibcode:2020Sci...369.1110P. doi:10.1126/science.aba1948. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 32855337. S2CID 221342529.
  47. ^ Guinan, E. F.; Ribas, I. (2002). Benjamin Montesinos, Alvaro Gimenez and Edward F. Guinan (ed.). Our Changing Sun: The Role of Solar Nuclear Evolution and Magnetic Activity on Earth's Atmosphere and Climate. ASP Conference Proceedings: The Evolving Sun and its Influence on Planetary Environments. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode:2002ASPC..269...85G. ISBN 978-1-58381-109-2.
  48. ^ Staff (4 March 2010). "Oldest measurement of Earth's magnetic field reveals battle between Sun and Earth for our atmosphere". Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  49. ^ a b McDonough, W.F.; Sun, S.-s. (1995). "The composition of the Earth". Chemical Geology. 120 (3–4): 223–253. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(94)00140-4.
  50. ^ a b Harrison, T. M.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Müller, W.; Albarede, F.; Holden, P.; Mojzsis, S. (December 2005). "Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 ga". Science. 310 (5756): 1947–1950. Bibcode:2005Sci...310.1947H. doi:10.1126/science.1117926. PMID 16293721. S2CID 11208727.
  51. ^ Rogers, John James William; Santosh, M. (2004). Continents and Supercontinents. Oxford University Press US. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-516589-0.
  52. ^ Hurley, P. M.; Rand, J. R. (June 1969). "Pre-drift continental nuclei". Science. 164 (3885): 1229–1242. Bibcode:1969Sci...164.1229H. doi:10.1126/science.164.3885.1229. PMID 17772560.
  53. ^ Armstrong, R. L. (1991). "The persistent myth of crustal growth" (PDF). Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. 38 (5): 613–630. Bibcode:1991AuJES..38..613A. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/08120099108727995.
  54. ^ De Smet, J.; Van Den Berg, A.P.; Vlaar, N.J. (2000). "Early formation and long-term stability of continents resulting from decompression melting in a convecting mantle" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 322 (1–2): 19–33. Bibcode:2000Tectp.322...19D. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00055-X. hdl:1874/1653.
  55. ^ Dhuime, B.; Hawksworth, C.J.; Delavault, H.; Cawood, P.A. (2018). "Rates of generation and destruction of the continental crust: implications for continental growth". Philosophical Transactions A. 376 (2132). Bibcode:2018RSPTA.37670403D. doi:10.1098/rsta.2017.0403. PMC 6189557. PMID 30275156.
  56. ^ Bradley, D.C. (2011). "Secular Trends in the Geologic Record and the Supercontinent Cycle". Earth-Science Reviews. 108 (1–2): 16–33. Bibcode:2011ESRv..108...16B. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.05.003. S2CID 140601854.
  57. ^ Kinzler, Ro. "When and how did the ice age end? Could another one start?". Ology. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  58. ^ Chalk, Thomas B.; et al. (12 December 2007). "Causes of ice age intensification across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (50): 13114–13119. doi:10.1073/pnas.1702143114. PMC 5740680. PMID 29180424.
  59. ^ Staff: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Page Paleontology Science Center, archiviert vom Original am 2007-03-04; abgerufen am 2. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  60. ^ Turner, Chris S.M.; et al. (2010). "The potential of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) for testing the synchronicity of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Interval (60,000–11,700 years ago)". Quaternary Science Reviews. Elsevier. 29 (27–28): 3677–3682. Bibcode:2010QSRv...29.3677T. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.08.017. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  61. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 2. September 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  62. ^ Doolittle, W. Ford; Worm, Boris (February 2000). "Uprooting the tree of life" (PDF). Scientific American. 282 (6): 90–95. Bibcode:2000SciAm.282b..90D. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0200-90. PMID 10710791. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2011.
  63. ^ a b Zimmer, Carl (3 October 2013). "Earth's Oxygen: A Mystery Easy to Take for Granted". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  64. ^ Berkner, L. V.; Marshall, L. C. (1965). "On the Origin and Rise of Oxygen Concentration in the Earth's Atmosphere". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 22 (3): 225–261. Bibcode:1965JAtS...22..225B. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)022<0225:OTOARO>2.0.CO;2.
  65. ^ Kathleen Burton: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 29. November 2002, abgerufen am 5. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  66. ^ Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M. (8 November 2013). "Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia". Astrobiology. 13 (12): 1103–1124. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13.1103N. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1030. PMC 3870916. PMID 24205812.
  67. ^ Ohtomo, Yoko; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Ishida, Akizumi; et al. (January 2014). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks". Nature Geoscience. 7 (1): 25–28. Bibcode:2014NatGe...7...25O. doi:10.1038/ngeo2025. ISSN 1752-0894. S2CID 54767854.
  68. ^ Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth". Excite. Yonkers, NY: Mindspark Interactive Network. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  69. ^ Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; Mao, Wendy L. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112 (47): 14518–4521. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214518B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517557112. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 4664351. PMID 26483481. Early edition, published online before print.
  70. ^ Kelly April Tyrell: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Wisconsin–Madison, 18. Dezember 2017, abgerufen am 18. Dezember 2017.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  71. ^ Schopf, J. William; Kitajima, Kouki; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Kudryavtsev, Anatolly B.; Valley, John W. (2017). "SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions". PNAS. 115 (1): 53–58. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115...53S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1718063115. PMC 5776830. PMID 29255053.
  72. ^ Brooke, John L. (2014). Climate Change and the Course of Global History. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-521-87164-8.
  73. ^ Cabej, Nelson R. (2019). Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion. Elsevier Science. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-12-814312-4.
  74. ^ Stanley, S. M. (2016). "Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (42): E6325–E6334. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113E6325S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1613094113. PMC 5081622. PMID 27698119. S2CID 23599425.
  75. ^ Gould, Stephen J. (October 1994). "The Evolution of Life on Earth". Scientific American. 271 (4): 84–91. Bibcode:1994SciAm.271d..84G. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1094-84. PMID 7939569. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
  76. ^ Wilkinson, B. H.; McElroy, B. J. (2007). "The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation". Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 119 (1–2): 140–156. Bibcode:2007GSAB..119..140W. doi:10.1130/B25899.1. S2CID 128776283.
  77. ^ a b c Sackmann, I.-J.; Boothroyd, A. I.; Kraemer, K. E. (1993). "Our Sun. III. Present and Future". Astrophysical Journal. 418: 457–468. Bibcode:1993ApJ...418..457S. doi:10.1086/173407.
  78. ^ Robert Britt: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 25. Februar 2000, archiviert vom Original am 2009-06-05;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  79. ^ Li, King-Fai; Pahlevan, Kaveh; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Yung, Yuk L. (2009). "Atmospheric pressure as a natural climate regulator for a terrestrial planet with a biosphere" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (24): 9576–9579. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9576L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809436106. PMC 2701016. PMID 19487662. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  80. ^ Ward, Peter D.; Brownlee, Donald (2002). The Life and Death of Planet Earth: How the New Science of Astrobiology Charts the Ultimate Fate of Our World. New York: Times Books, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-6781-1.
  81. ^ a b Mello, Fernando de Sousa; Friaça, Amâncio César Santos (2020). "The end of life on Earth is not the end of the world: converging to an estimate of life span of the biosphere?". International Journal of Astrobiology. 19 (1): 25–42. Bibcode:2020IJAsB..19...25D. doi:10.1017/S1473550419000120. ISSN 1473-5504.
  82. ^ Bounama, Christine; Franck, S.; Von Bloh, W. (2001). "The fate of Earth's ocean". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 5 (4): 569–575. Bibcode:2001HESS....5..569B. doi:10.5194/hess-5-569-2001. S2CID 14024675.
  83. ^ Schröder, K.-P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 155–163. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. S2CID 10073988.
    See also Palmer, Jason (22 February 2008). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death". news service. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
  84. ^ Jonti Horner: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 16. Juli 2021, abgerufen am 3. März 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  85. ^ a b D. T. Sandwell, Walter H. F. Smith: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NOAA/NGDC, 7. Juli 2006, archiviert vom Original am 2014-07-15; abgerufen am 21. April 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  86. ^ D. G. Milbert, D. A Smith: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". National Geodetic Survey, NOAA, abgerufen am 7. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  87. ^ Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J. (2019). "The five deeps: The location and depth of the deepest place in each of the world's oceans". Earth-Science Reviews. 197: 102896. Bibcode:2019ESRv..19702896S. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102896. ISSN 0012-8252.
  88. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Billiards Digest, 1. Juni 2013, abgerufen am 26. November 2014.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  89. ^ Barbara Tewksbury: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 19. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  90. ^ Senne, Joseph H. (2000). "Did Edmund Hillary Climb the Wrong Mountain". Professional Surveyor. 20 (5): 16–21.
  91. ^ Robert Krulwich: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 7. April 2007, abgerufen am 31. Juli 2012.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  92. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, abgerufen am 16. Juni 2022 (english).
  93. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". National Ocean Service, abgerufen am 10. Oktober 2020 (american English).
  94. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  95. ^ Janin, H.; Mandia, S.A. (2012). Rising Sea Levels: An Introduction to Cause and Impact. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7864-5956-8. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  96. ^ Christine Ro: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 3. Februar 2020, abgerufen am 26. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  97. ^ Yvette Smith: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 7. Juni 2021, abgerufen am 27. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  98. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 20. Mai 2022, abgerufen am 24. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  99. ^ Lunine, Jonathan I. (2017). "Ocean worlds exploration". Acta Astronautica. Elsevier BV. 131: 123–130. Bibcode:2017AcAau.131..123L. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.11.017. ISSN 0094-5765.
  100. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 27. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  101. ^ Voosen, Paul (9 March 2021). "Ancient Earth was a water world". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 371 (6534): 1088–1089. doi:10.1126/science.abh4289. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 33707245. S2CID 241687784.
  102. ^ Dunn, Ross E.; Mitchell, Laura J.; Ward, Kerry (2016). The New World History: A Field Guide for Teachers and Researchers. Univ of California Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-520-28989-5.
  103. ^ Caitlin Dempsey: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 15. Oktober 2013, abgerufen am 26. August 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  104. ^ R.W. McColl, ed. (2005). "continents". Encyclopedia of World Geography. Vol. 1. Facts on File, Inc. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3. Retrieved 25 August 2022. And since Africa and Asia are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia are sometimes combined as Afro-Eurasia or Eurafrasia. The International Olympic Committee's official flag, containing [...] the single continent of America (North and South America being connected as the Isthmus of Panama).
  105. ^ National Geophysical Data Center: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 19. August 2020;.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  106. ^ Michael Carlowicz, Robert Simmon: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 15. Juli 2019, abgerufen am 31. Dezember 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  107. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 6. August 2006, abgerufen am 3. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  108. ^ Obu, J. (2021). "How Much of the Earth's Surface is Underlain by Permafrost?". Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. American Geophysical Union (AGU). 126 (5). Bibcode:2021JGRF..12606123O. doi:10.1029/2021jf006123. ISSN 2169-9003. S2CID 235532921.
  109. ^ Fraser Cain: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 1. Juni 2010, abgerufen am 3. Januar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  110. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". World Bank, abgerufen am 19. Oktober 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  111. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". World Bank, abgerufen am 19. Oktober 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  112. ^ Hooke, Roger LeB.; Martín-Duque, José F.; Pedraza, Javier (December 2012). "Land transformation by humans: A review" (PDF). GSA Today. 22 (12): 4–10. Bibcode:2012GSAT...12l...4H. doi:10.1130/GSAT151A.1.
  113. ^ Staff: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Oregon State University, archiviert vom Original am 2013-02-11; abgerufen am 11. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  114. ^ David Jessey: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2007-07-03; abgerufen am 20. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  115. ^ David A Kring: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, abgerufen am 22. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  116. ^ Martin, Ronald (2011). Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-7637-8001-2. OCLC 635476788.
  117. ^ W. K. Brown, K. H. Wohletz: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2005, abgerufen am 2. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  118. ^ W. J. Kious, R. I. Tilling: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". USGS, 5. Mai 1999, abgerufen am 2. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  119. ^ Courtney Seligman: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle"., 2008, abgerufen am 28. Februar 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  120. ^ Fred Duennebier: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Hawaii, 12. August 1999, abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  121. ^ R. D. Mueller, W. R. Roest, J.-Y. Royer, L. M. Gahagan, J. G. Sclater: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NOAA, 7. März 2007, abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  122. ^ Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. (1999). "Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 134 (1): 3–16. Bibcode:1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465. S2CID 128376754.
  123. ^ Martin Meschede, Udo Barckhausen: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Texas A&M University, 20. November 2000, abgerufen am 2. April 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  124. ^ Argus, D.F.; Gordon, R.G.; DeMets, C. (2011). "Geologically current motion of 56 plates relative to the no‐net‐rotation reference frame". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 12 (11): n/a. Bibcode:2011GGG....1211001A. doi:10.1029/2011GC003751.
  125. ^ Jordan, T. H. (1979). "Structural geology of the Earth's interior". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 76 (9): 4192–4200. Bibcode:1979PNAS...76.4192J. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.9.4192. PMC 411539. PMID 16592703.
  126. ^ Eugene C. Robertson: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". USGS, 26. Juli 2001, abgerufen am 24. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  127. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2012, abgerufen am 25. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  128. ^ Micalizio, Caryl-Sue; Evers, Jeannie (20 May 2015). "Lithosphere". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  129. ^ Tanimoto, Toshiro (1995). "Crustal Structure of the Earth" (PDF). In Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.). Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. AGU Reference Shelf. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. Bibcode:1995geph.conf.....A. doi:10.1029/RF001. ISBN 978-0-87590-851-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2007.
  130. ^ Deuss, Arwen (2014). "Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's Inner Core". Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42 (1): 103–126. Bibcode:2014AREPS..42..103D. doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-054658.
  131. ^ a b Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E. (1980). "Chemical composition of Earth, Venus, and Mercury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 77 (12): 6973–6977. Bibcode:1980PNAS...77.6973M. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.6973. PMC 350422. PMID 16592930.
  132. ^ Brown, Geoff C.; Mussett, Alan E. (1981). The Inaccessible Earth (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-04-550028-4. Note: After Ronov and Yaroshevsky (1969).
  133. ^ Sanders, Robert (10 December 2003). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
  134. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 25. April 2013, archiviert vom Original am 2013-06-28; abgerufen am 12. April 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  135. ^ Alfè, D.; Gillan, M. J.; Vočadlo, L.; Brodholt, J.; Price, G. D. (2002). "The ab initio simulation of the Earth's core" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 360 (1795): 1227–1244. Bibcode:2002RSPTA.360.1227A. doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.0992. PMID 12804276. S2CID 21132433. Retrieved 28 February 2007.
  136. ^ Turcotte, D. L.; Schubert, G. (2002). "4". Geodynamics (2 ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-521-66624-4.
  137. ^ Vlaar, N; Vankeken, P.; Vandenberg, A. (1994). "Cooling of the Earth in the Archaean: Consequences of pressure-release melting in a hotter mantle" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 121 (1–2): 1–18. Bibcode:1994E&PSL.121....1V. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(94)90028-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012.
  138. ^ Pollack, Henry N.; Hurter, Suzanne J.; Johnson, Jeffrey R. (August 1993). "Heat flow from the Earth's interior: Analysis of the global data set". Reviews of Geophysics. 31 (3): 267–280. Bibcode:1993RvGeo..31..267P. doi:10.1029/93RG01249.
  139. ^ Richards, M. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Courtillot, V. E. (1989). "Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails". Science. 246 (4926): 103–107. Bibcode:1989Sci...246..103R. doi:10.1126/science.246.4926.103. PMID 17837768. S2CID 9147772.
  140. ^ Sclater, John G; Parsons, Barry; Jaupart, Claude (1981). "Oceans and Continents: Similarities and Differences in the Mechanisms of Heat Loss". Journal of Geophysical Research. 86 (B12): 11535. Bibcode:1981JGR....8611535S. doi:10.1029/JB086iB12p11535.
  141. ^ Watts, A. B.; Daly, S. F. (May 1981). "Long wavelength gravity and topography anomalies". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 9: 415–418. Bibcode:1981AREPS...9..415W. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.09.050181.002215.
  142. ^ Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay (2006). "Changes in earth's dipole" (PDF). Naturwissenschaften. 93 (11): 519–542. Bibcode:2006NW.....93..519O. doi:10.1007/s00114-006-0138-6. PMID 16915369. S2CID 22283432.
  143. ^ Richard Fitzpatrick: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA WMAP, 16. Februar 2006, abgerufen am 27. Februar 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  144. ^ Campbell, Wallace Hall (2003). Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-521-82206-0.
  145. ^ Ganushkina, N. Yu; Liemohn, M. W.; Dubyagin, S. (2018). "Current Systems in the Earth's Magnetosphere". Reviews of Geophysics. 56 (2): 309–332. Bibcode:2018RvGeo..56..309G. doi:10.1002/2017RG000590. hdl:2027.42/145256. ISSN 1944-9208. S2CID 134666611. Archived from the original on 31 March 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  146. ^ Arnaud Masson: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". European Space Agency, 11. Mai 2007, abgerufen am 16. August 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  147. ^ Dennis L. Gallagher: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, 14. August 2015, abgerufen am 16. August 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  148. ^ Dennis L. Gallagher: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, 27. Mai 2015, abgerufen am 16. August 2016.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  149. ^ Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Treumann, Rudolf A. (1997). Basic Space Plasma Physics. World Scientific. pp. 8, 31. ISBN 978-1-86094-079-8.
  150. ^ McElroy, Michael B. (2012). "Ionosphere and magnetosphere". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  151. ^ Van Allen, James Alfred (2004). Origins of Magnetospheric Physics. University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-0-87745-921-7. OCLC 646887856.
  152. ^ David P. Stern: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA, 8. Juli 2005, archiviert vom Original am 2013-02-14; abgerufen am 21. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  153. ^ McCarthy, Dennis D.; Hackman, Christine; Nelson, Robert A. (November 2008). "The Physical Basis of the Leap Second". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (5): 1906–1908. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.1906M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/5/1906.
  154. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Time Service Department, USNO, archiviert vom Original am 2015-03-12; abgerufen am 23. September 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  155. ^ "Rapid Service/Prediction of Earth Orientation". IERS Bulletin-A. 28 (15). 9 April 2015. Archived from the original (.DAT file (displays as plaintext in browser)) on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  156. ^ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-935702-68-2.
  157. ^ Zeilik, Michael; Gregory, Stephen A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-03-006228-5.
  158. ^ a b David R. Williams: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 10. Februar 2006, S. See the apparent diameters on the Sun and Moon pages, abgerufen am 28. September 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  159. ^ David R. Williams: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 1. September 2004, abgerufen am 21. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  160. ^ a b Vázquez, M.; Rodríguez, P. Montañés; Palle, E. (2006). "The Earth as an Object of Astrophysical Interest in the Search for Extrasolar Planets" (PDF). Lecture Notes and Essays in Astrophysics. 2: 49. Bibcode:2006LNEA....2...49V. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  161. ^ Astrophysicist team: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA, 1. Dezember 2005, archiviert vom Original am 2008-07-01; abgerufen am 11. Juni 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  162. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 291–292. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  163. ^ Burn, Chris (March 1996). The Polar Night (PDF). The Aurora Research Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  164. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 24. Juni 2020, abgerufen am 13. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  165. ^ Irv Bromberg: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Toronto, 1. Mai 2008, archiviert vom Original am 2008-12-18; abgerufen am 8. November 2008.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  166. ^ Haosheng Lin: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2006, abgerufen am 10. September 2010.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  167. ^ Rick Fisher: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 5. Februar 1996, archiviert vom Original am 2011-08-18; abgerufen am 21. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  168. ^ Alan Buis: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 27. Februar 2020, abgerufen am 27. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  169. ^ Sarah M. Kang, Richard Seager: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 27. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  170. ^ Erik Klemetti: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 17. Juni 2019, abgerufen am 13. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  171. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 19. Dezember 2019, abgerufen am 13. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  172. ^ Toby Brown: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2. Dezember 2019, abgerufen am 13. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  173. ^ Coughenour, Christopher L.; Archer, Allen W.; Lacovara, Kenneth J. (2009). "Tides, tidalites, and secular changes in the Earth–Moon system". Earth-Science Reviews. 97 (1): 59–79. Bibcode:2009ESRv...97...59C. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.09.002. ISSN 0012-8252.
  174. ^ Kelley, Peter (17 August 2017). "Tidally locked exoplanets may be more common than previously thought". Uw News. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  175. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 8. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  176. ^ Fred Espenak, Jean Meeus: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA, 7. Februar 2007, archiviert vom Original am 2008-03-02; abgerufen am 20. April 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  177. ^ Williams, G.E. (2000). "Geological constraints on the Precambrian history of Earth's rotation and the Moon's orbit". Reviews of Geophysics. 38 (1): 37–59. Bibcode:2000RvGeo..38...37W. doi:10.1029/1999RG900016. S2CID 51948507.
  178. ^ Laskar, J.; et al. (2004). "A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 428 (1): 261–285. Bibcode:2004A&A...428..261L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041335.
  179. ^ Keith Cooper: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 27. Januar 2015, abgerufen am 26. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  180. ^ Dadarich, Amy; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Matsuyama, Isamu; Perron, J. Taylor; Manga, Michael; Richards, Mark A. (22 November 2007). "Equilibrium rotational stability and figure of Mars" (PDF). Icarus. 194 (2): 463–475. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.10.017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  181. ^ Caleb A. Sharf: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 18. Mai 2012, abgerufen am 13. Oktober 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  182. ^ Christou, Apostolos A.; Asher, David J. (31 March 2011). "A long-lived horseshoe companion to the Earth". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 414 (4): 2965–2969. arXiv:1104.0036. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.414.2965C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18595.x. S2CID 13832179. See table 2, p. 5.
  183. ^ Marcos, C. de la Fuente; Marcos, R. de la Fuente (8 August 2016). "Asteroid (469219) 2016 HO3, the smallest and closest Earth quasi-satellite". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 462 (4): 3441–3456. arXiv:1608.01518. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.462.3441D. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1972. S2CID 118580771. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  184. ^ Charles Q. Choi: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 27. Juli 2011, abgerufen am 27. Juli 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  185. ^ [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Archiviert vom Original am 2015-02-06; abgerufen am 17. Juli 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  186. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Union of Concerned Scientists, 1. September 2021, abgerufen am 12. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  187. ^ Welch, Rosanne; Lamphier, Peg A. (2019). Technical Innovation in American History: An Encyclopedia of Science and Technology [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-61069-094-2.
  188. ^ Charette, Matthew A.; Smith, Walter H. F. (June 2010). "The Volume of Earth's Ocean". Oceanography. 23 (2): 112–114. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.51.
  189. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 12. April 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  190. ^ European Investment Bank (2019). On Water. European Investment Bank. European Investment Bank. doi:10.2867/509830. ISBN 9789286143199. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  191. ^ Tariq Khokhar: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 22. März 2017, abgerufen am 7. Dezember 2020 (english).
  192. ^ Howard Perlman: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 17. März 2014, abgerufen am 12. April 2015.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  193. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 28. Februar 2016, abgerufen am 28. Februar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  194. ^ Water Science School: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 13. November 2019, abgerufen am 3. März 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  195. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 18. August 2022, abgerufen am 28. Februar 2023.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  196. ^ Hendrix, Mark (2019). Earth Science: An Introduction. Boston: Cengage. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-357-11656-2.
  197. ^ Hendrix, Mark (2019). Earth Science: An Introduction. Boston: Cengage. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-357-11656-2.
  198. ^ Kennish, Michael J. (2001). Practical handbook of marine science. Marine science series (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 35. doi:10.1201/9781420038484. ISBN 978-0-8493-2391-1.
  199. ^ Leslie Mullen: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 11. Juni 2002, archiviert vom Original am 2007-06-30; abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  200. ^ Ron M Morris: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA Astrobiology Magazine, archiviert vom Original am 2009-04-15; abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  201. ^ Michon Scott: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA Earth Observatory, 24. April 2006, abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  202. ^ Sharron Sample: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA, 21. Juni 2005, archiviert vom Original am 2013-04-27; abgerufen am 21. April 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  203. ^ Astrogeology Science Center: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 14. Oktober 2021, abgerufen am 19. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  204. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 1. Juni 2013, abgerufen am 19. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  205. ^ a b c Exline, Joseph D.; Levine, Arlene S.; Levine, Joel S. (2006). Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5–9 (PDF). NASA/Langley Research Center. p. 6. NP-2006-08-97-LaRC.
  206. ^ King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A. (2013). "Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites". IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 51 (7): 3826–3852. Bibcode:2013ITGRS..51.3826K. doi:10.1109/tgrs.2012.2227333. ISSN 0196-2892. S2CID 206691291.
  207. ^ B. Geerts, E. Linacre: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Wyoming, November 1997, abgerufen am 10. August 2006.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  208. ^ Harrison, Roy M.; Hester, Ronald E. (2002). Causes and Environmental Implications of Increased UV-B Radiation. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-265-4.
  209. ^ a b Staff: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 8. Oktober 2003, abgerufen am 21. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  210. ^ Michael Pidwirny: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 2006, abgerufen am 19. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  211. ^ Gaan, Narottam (2008). Climate Change and International Politics. Kalpaz Publications. p. 40. ISBN 978-81-7835-641-9.
  212. ^ Nadia Drake: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 20. Dezember 2018, abgerufen am 4. Dezember 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  213. ^ Kristen Erickson, Heather Doyle: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 28. Juni 2019, abgerufen am 4. Dezember 2021.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  214. ^ a b Joseph M. Moran: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA/World Book, Inc, 2005, archiviert vom Original am 2010-12-13; abgerufen am 17. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  215. ^ a b Wolfgang H. Berger: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of California, San Diego, 2002, abgerufen am 24. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  216. ^ Stefan Rahmstorf: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2003, abgerufen am 21. April 2007.
  217. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 21. Dezember 2021, abgerufen am 13. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  218. ^ Coddington, Odele; Lean, Judith L.; Pilewskie, Peter; Snow, Martin; Lindholm, Doug (2016). "A Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 97 (7): 1265–1282. Bibcode:2016BAMS...97.1265C. doi:10.1175/bams-d-14-00265.1.
  219. ^ Sadava, David E.; Heller, H. Craig; Orians, Gordon H. (2006). Life, the Science of Biology (8th ed.). MacMillan. p. 1114. ISBN 978-0-7167-7671-0.
  220. ^ Staff: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, archiviert vom Original am 2010-08-08; abgerufen am 24. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  221. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  222. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  223. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  224. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  225. ^ Various: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". University of Illinois, 21. Juli 1997, abgerufen am 24. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  226. ^ Rohli, Robert. V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2018). Climatology (fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-284-12656-3.
  227. ^ El Fadli, Khalid I.; et al. (2013). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 94 (2): 199–204. Bibcode:2013BAMS...94..199E. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1. ISSN 0003-0007.
  228. ^ Turner, John; et al. (2009). "Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 114 (D24): D24102. Bibcode:2009JGRD..11424102T. doi:10.1029/2009JD012104. ISSN 2156-2202.
  229. ^ Oliver Morton: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 26. August 2022, abgerufen am 26. August 2022.
  230. ^ Staff: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 2004, archiviert vom Original am 2007-07-13; abgerufen am 14. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  231. ^ S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, 21. Juni 2004, archiviert vom Original am 2010-01-15; abgerufen am 21. April 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  232. ^ Liu, S. C.; Donahue, T. M. (1974). "The Aeronomy of Hydrogen in the Atmosphere of the Earth". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 31 (4): 1118–1136. Bibcode:1974JAtS...31.1118L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<1118:TAOHIT>2.0.CO;2.
  233. ^ Catling, David C.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; McKay, Christopher P. (2001). "Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth". Science. 293 (5531): 839–843. Bibcode:2001Sci...293..839C. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126/science.1061976. PMID 11486082. S2CID 37386726.
  234. ^ Stephen T. Abedon: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] Ohio State University, 31. März 1997, archiviert vom Original am 2012-11-29; abgerufen am 19. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  235. ^ Hunten, D. M.; Donahue, T. M (1976). "Hydrogen loss from the terrestrial planets". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 4 (1): 265–292. Bibcode:1976AREPS...4..265H. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.04.050176.001405.
  236. ^ Kim Rutledge: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 24. Juni 2011, abgerufen am 1. November 2020.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  237. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". BBC, S. 3, abgerufen am 28. Juni 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  238. ^ Hillebrand, Helmut (2004). "On the Generality of the Latitudinal Gradient" (PDF). American Naturalist. 163 (2): 192–211. doi:10.1086/381004. PMID 14970922. S2CID 9886026.
  239. ^ Staff: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] NASA, Lockheed Martin, September 2003, archiviert vom Original am 2012-03-12; abgerufen am 10. März 2007.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  240. ^ Singh, J. S.; Singh, S. P.; Gupta, S.R. (2013). Ecology environmental science and conservation (First ed.). New Delhi: S. Chand & Company. ISBN 978-93-83746-00-2. OCLC 896866658.
  241. ^ Smith, Sharon; Fleming, Lora; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Gerwick, William H. (2011). Oceans and Human Health. Elsevier Science. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-08-087782-2.
  242. ^ Alexander, David (1993). Natural Disasters. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-317-93881-1.
  243. ^ Goudie, Andrew (2000). The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. MIT Press. pp. 52, 66, 69, 137, 142, 185, 202, 355, 366. ISBN 978-0-262-57138-8.
  244. ^ a b Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken (2016). "Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (4): 048002. Bibcode:2016ERL....11d8002C. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/048002. ISSN 1748-9326.
  245. ^ a b Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 14. Januar 2019, abgerufen am 16. September 2020 (english).
  246. ^ Jim Gomez, Tim Sullivan: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 31. Oktober 2011, archiviert vom Original am 2011-10-31; abgerufen am 31. Oktober 2011.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  247. ^ a b Harvey, Fiona (15 July 2020). "World population in 2100 could be 2 billion below UN forecasts, study suggests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  248. ^ Ashley Lutz: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 4. Mai 2012, abgerufen am 5. Januar 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  249. ^ Abel Méndez: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, 6. Juli 2011, archiviert vom Original am 2019-01-06; abgerufen am 5. Januar 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  250. ^ Ritchie, H.; Roser, M. (2019). "What share of people will live in urban areas in the future?". Our World in Data. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  251. ^ Shayler, David; Vis, Bert (2005). Russia's Cosmonauts: Inside the Yuri Gagarin Training Center. Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-0-387-21894-6.
  252. ^ Holmes, Oliver (19 November 2018). "Space: how far have we gone – and where are we going?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  253. ^ Press Release ORG/1469: [Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle".] United Nations, 3. Juli 2006, archiviert vom Original am 2013-12-30; abgerufen am 3. November 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  254. ^ Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2010). The Discretely Plumper Second QI Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-571-29072-7.
  255. ^ Smith, Courtney B. (2006). Politics and Process at the United Nations: The Global Dance (PDF). Lynne Reiner. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-1-58826-323-0.
  256. ^ "What are the consequences of the overexploitation of natural resources?". Iberdrola. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  257. ^ "13. Exploitation of Natural Resources". European Environment Agency. European Union. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  258. ^ Huebsch, Russell (29 September 2017). "How Are Fossil Fuels Extracted From the Ground?". Sciencing. Leaf Group Media. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  259. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". Abgerufen am 28. Juni 2019.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  260. ^ Brimhall, George (May 1991). "The Genesis of Ores". Scientific American. Nature America. 264 (5): 84–91. Bibcode:1991SciAm.264e..84B. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0591-84. JSTOR 24936905. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  261. ^ Lunine, Jonathan I. (2013). Earth: Evolution of a Habitable World (second ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 292–294. ISBN 978-0-521-61519-8.
  262. ^ Rona, Peter A. (2003). "Resources of the Sea Floor". Science. 299 (5607): 673–674. doi:10.1126/science.1080679. PMID 12560541. S2CID 129262186.
  263. ^ Ritchie, H.; Roser, M. (2019). "Land Use". Our World in Data. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  264. ^ IPCC (2019). "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land. p. 8.
  265. ^ Tate, Nikki; Tate-Stratton, Dani (2014). Take Shelter: At Home Around the World. Orca Book Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4598-0742-6.
  266. ^ IPCC (2021). Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pirani, A.; Connors, S. L.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis (PDF). Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press (In Press). SPM-7.
  267. ^ Rebecca Lindsey: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". NASA, 14. Januar 2009, abgerufen am 19. Dezember 2021 (english).
  268. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 14. Januar 2021, abgerufen am 3. März 2021 (english).
  269. ^ Mike DiGirolamo: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 8. September 2021, abgerufen am 27. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  270. ^ Carrington, Damien (18 January 2022). "Chemical pollution has passed safe limit for humanity, say scientists". The Guardian.
  271. ^ O'Neill, Daniel W.; Fanning, Andrew L.; Lamb, William F.; Steinberger, Julia K. (2018). "A good life for all within planetary boundaries". Nature Sustainability. 1 (2): 88–95. doi:10.1038/s41893-018-0021-4. ISSN 2398-9629. S2CID 169679920.
  272. ^ Widmer, Ted (24 December 2018). "What Did Plato Think the Earth Looked Like? – For millenniums, humans have tried to imagine the world in space. Fifty years ago, we finally saw it". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  273. ^ Liungman, Carl G. (2004). "Group 29: Multi-axes symmetric, both soft and straight-lined, closed signs with crossing lines". Symbols – Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms. New York: Ionfox AB. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-91-972705-0-2.
  274. ^ a b Stookey, Lorena Laura (2004). Thematic Guide to World Mythology. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-0-313-31505-3.
  275. ^ Lovelock, James E. (2009). The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8.
  276. ^ Lovelock, James E. (1972). "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment. 6 (8): 579–580. Bibcode:1972AtmEn...6..579L. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5. ISSN 1352-2310.
  277. ^ Lovelock, James E.; Margulis, Lynn (1974). "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis". Tellus. Series A. 26 (1–2): 2–10. Bibcode:1974Tell...26....2L. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x. ISSN 1600-0870. S2CID 129803613.
  278. ^ Overbye, Dennis (21 December 2018). "Apollo 8's Earthrise: The Shot Seen Round the World – Half a century ago today, a photograph from the moon helped humans rediscover Earth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  279. ^ Boulton, Matthew Myer; Heithaus, Joseph (24 December 2018). "We Are All Riders on the Same Planet – Seen from space 50 years ago, Earth appeared as a gift to preserve and cherish. What happened?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  280. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 7. Oktober 2021, abgerufen am 27. Januar 2022.
  281. ^ Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 16. April 2020, abgerufen am 27. Januar 2022.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  282. ^ Kahn, Charles H. (2001). Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History. Indianapolis, IN and Cambridge, England: Hackett Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-87220-575-8.
  283. ^ Garwood, Christine (2008). Flat earth : the history of an infamous idea (1st ed.). New York: Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 26–31. ISBN 978-0-312-38208-7. OCLC 184822945.
  284. ^ Bill Arnett: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". In: Script error: No such module "Vorlage:Internetquelle". 16. Juli 2006, abgerufen am 9. März 2010.Vorlage:Cite web/temporär
  285. ^ Monroe, James; Wicander, Reed; Hazlett, Richard (2007). Physical Geology: Exploring the Earth. Thomson Brooks/Cole. pp. 263–265. ISBN 978-0-495-01148-4.
  286. ^ Henshaw, John M. (2014). An Equation for Every Occasion: Fifty-Two Formulas and Why They Matter. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-1-4214-1491-1.
  287. ^ Burchfield, Joe D. (1990). Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth. University of Chicago Press. pp. 13–18. ISBN 978-0-226-08043-7.

Cite error: <ref> tag with name "de_pater_lissauer2010" defined in <references> is not used in prior text; see the help page. ().
Cite error: <ref> tag with name "wekn_bulakh2004" defined in <references> is not used in prior text; see the help page. ().

External links edit

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Portal/images/o' not found.